What is important when packing goods

The various functions of packaging are divided into primary, secondary and tertiary functions. In contrast to the primary functions, which are more related to the technical nature of the packaging, the secondary functions describe the communicative area. The primary, secondary and tertiary functions are divided into the following sub-functions:

Protective function

The protective function of the packaging consists principally in the fact that it has to shield the goods and the environment from one another. The inwardly directed protection aims at the complete preservation of the utility value of the packaged goods. The packaging must protect the goods accordingly against loss, damage and theft.

To do this, it must be able to safely absorb the static and dynamic forces that occur in various forms during transport, transshipment and storage processes. Often the goods must also be protected against meteorological influences such as temperature, humidity, precipitation and solar radiation. In addition to an "external packaging measure", this may also require "internal packaging measures".

The protection directed outwards from the packaging must ensure that any impairment of the environment by the goods is prevented. This requirement is given the greatest weight when transporting dangerous goods. The first priority is the protection of people. In addition, the packaging must as far as possible rule out soiling, damage or other adverse effects on the environment and other goods.

The protection to be guaranteed internally and externally places demands on the strength, durability and tightness of transport packaging.

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Warehouse function

The packaging materials and packaging materials required for the production of packaging must be stored in a wide variety of locations before the goods are packaged and after the packaged goods have been used. The packaging must therefore also fulfill a storage function.

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Loading and transport function

The appropriate handling of the goods requires transport packaging to be designed in such a way that it can be easily, efficiently and safely gripped, picked up, moved, set down and stowed. Accordingly, packaging has a significant influence on the effectiveness of the transport, handling and storage of goods. They should therefore be designed to be easy to manipulate and be suitable for storage or stowage that saves space and space. Their shape and strength should allow them to be stacked next to one another largely without gaps, but also to allow them to be stowed securely on top of one another.

The most efficient way of handling general cargo is achieved by creating loading units. Therefore, packaging should generally have a promoting effect on the formation of loading units. Their dimensions and the masses to be absorbed are to be matched as far as possible to the dimensions and carrying capacity of standard pallets and containers.

Packaging intended for exclusive or partial manual handling must be easy to grip and must only have correspondingly small dimensions. Heavy goods must always be stored in packaging that is easily accessible for mechanical treatment. Such shipping items must be accessible by forklifts and equipped with appropriate attachment points for lifting the load, which must be specially marked if necessary (handling markings).

The loading and transport function places demands on the external shape of the packaging, the mass of the goods to be accommodated in it and the appropriate use of packaging aids. The strength of the packaging necessary for the required stacking of the goods shows the close connection between the loading and transport function and the protective function.

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Sales function

The sales function of packaging aims to enable or accelerate the sales process in the first place and to make sales more rational.

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Advertising function

The advertising attached to the packaging is intended to draw the potential buyer’s attention to the goods and positively influence their purchase decision. Advertising on packaging plays an important role, especially in sales packaging, as it addresses the end consumer directly. In the area of ​​transport packaging, this function is of minor importance. The goods are advertised along the transport chain, but at the same time too much advertising increases the risk of theft.

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Service function

Various instructions printed on the packaging inform the consumer about the content and use of the respective goods. Examples include: B. the nutritional information on yoghurt cups or the dosage information for medication.

In addition, the packaging can serve a further function after the packaged goods have been used (e.g. storage container, toys).

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Guarantee function

With the undamaged and flawless packaging, the manufacturer of the goods guarantees that the information on the packaging corresponds to the content. The packaging is therefore the basis for branded articles, consumer protection and product liability. Various laws require that goods be clearly labeled according to type, composition, weight, quantity and shelf life.

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Additional function

The additional function is aimed in particular at the extent to which the packaging materials or packaging can be used after the packaged goods have been used. The most important example is the recycling of paper, cardboard and cardboard packaging to make waste paper.

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