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SoSci Survey provides different types of questions for realizing rating scales. In the following, rating scales will be discussed in more detail, on which there is an item text (e.g. a statement) on one side and next to (or below) several response levels to assess the item.

Depending on whether you only want to label the extreme values ​​of the scale or whether you want to label each individual value, please use the question type "Scale (labeled extreme values)" or "Scale (labeled intermediate values)". You can also change the question type later.

Tip: Choose under presentationarrangement whether the scale points should be displayed next to the item text or below it.

Coding of the answer options

The selection options for a scale are automatically assigned the codes 1 (minimum) to k (Maximum), where k stands for the number of scale levels. So e.g. 1 to 5 on a 5-point scale.

Invert items

You can invert the coding of individual items (reversed coding) so that a selection of the minimum (e.g. "does not apply at all") does not receive code 1, but code 5 (on a 5-point scale). To do this, either put in the Quick item entry a tick to the right of the item text (⮀) or select the item on the left in the navigation (Questionnaire) and activate the option Invert response codes for this item.

Recode items

If you need a different coding (e.g. 0..4 instead of 1..5), you have two options: You can recode the items in the classic way during the evaluation - or you can recode into new variables within the questionnaire.

To do this, you first need a question Internal variables with as many variables as your scale has items. The easiest way to do this is to duplicate the question with the scale and then change the question type of the copy to "Internal Variables".

Then read out the participant's answer in the scale using PHP code and the function, carry out the required recoding, and save the result in one of the internal variables using.

Important: The PHP code must not be on the same page as the scale, but on the next page (e.g. at the beginning of the next page). For details, please refer to the information on the function.

Note: If you would like to "rotate" individual, negatively formulated items on the scale, please tick the box for "invert response codes" for the respective item.

example 1

The following PHP code re-codes all items on the “SC01” scale in such a way that the coding 1..5 is transformed to 0..4. The recoded values ​​are saved in the internal variables of "IV01".

$ input = 'SC01'; $ output = 'IV01'; // create a list of all items $ items = getItems ($ input, 'all'); // go through all itemsforeach ($ itemsas $ item) {// id () builds an item ID (SC01_01) from a question ID (SC01) and the item number (e.g. 1) // value () reads the response code from $ orgCode = value (id ($ input, $ item)); // only recode positive codes if ($ orgCode> 0) {// subtract from 1 $ newCode = $ orgCode-1;} else {// keep error codes $ newCode = $ orgCode;} // put () saves the value in an internal variable put (id ($ output, $ item), $ newCode);}

Important: The question "internal variables", in the example IV01, must be created manually in the question catalog (see above).

Important: The above code also transforms error codes, e.g. -1 for selecting a residual option ("don't know") becomes -2. Code code -9 (no answer) would become -10.

Example 2

The following PHP code does an individual recoding for each item. This is initially defined in an array. The identifier of the item is used as the key for the array, e.g. 2 for "SC01_02".

Further arrays are defined within the array (in the example one per line), which determine the exact recoding. For the second item, for example, the value 1 should become 5, the values ​​2 and 3 become 2, the value 4 becomes 1 and the 5 becomes 0.

$ input = 'SC01'; // Identification of the scale question $ output = 'IV01'; // Identification of the internal variables $ recode = array (1 => array (1 => 2.2 => 4.3 => 6.4 => 8.5 => 10), 2 => array (1 => 5.2 => 2.3 => 2.4 => 1.5 => 0), 3 => array (1 => 1.2 => 1.3 => 2.4 => 2.5 => 4), 4 => array (1 => 0.2 => 2.3 => 2.4 => 1, 5 => 0)); foreach ($ recodeas $ item => $ codes) {// Get response code from the scale $ response = value (id ($ input, $ item)); // Only recode if this value has been defined (otherwise the error code -8 save) if (isset ($ codes [$ response])) {put (id ($ output, $ item), $ codes [$ response]);} else {put (id ($ output, $ item), - 8 );}}

Different labels

The answer options in a scale are the same for all items, e.g. from “does not apply at all” to “applies completely”. If your items ask for different answer options, first check whether one of the following question types is suitable:

If not, create several scale questions and display them in the questionnaire directly one below the other and without any spacing: Connect the questions together

Vertical lettering

When the scales are fully labeled, the space can be tight. In this case, it usually makes sense to change the content of the question or to use a different type of question (e.g. a selection sequence). But in some individual cases it can also be useful to align the labels on the scale points vertically.

Attention: The following solution will not work correctly on the small screens of mobile devices without further adjustments.

To align text rotated by 90 °, first add to the questionnaire layout in the HTML template In the area first the following CSS code.

div.vert {height: 100px; width: 20px; overflow: hidden; position: relative;} div.vert> span {display: block; position: absolute; bottom: 0; width: 100px; height: 20px; text-align : left; transform: rotate (270deg) translate (-20px, 5px); transform-origin: 00;}

Please note that the exact dimensions - in particular the and in general and must be adapted to the respective scale. As an alternative to the layout, you can also use the PHP command to include the CSS code on just one page in the questionnaire. In this case you will only see the change in the questionnaire and not in the preview of the question.

Furthermore, you reduce the question of scale Width of labeled values ​​/ columns to about 40 pixels.

Finally, put the selection option labels in and a tag, as in the following example:

Does not apply at all