What are some unwritten rules for bowling

Scam - Cheating

For information about cheating on a relationship, see Infidelity.
Action to undermine rules
This 1822 newspaper describes how strings, secretly attached to bowling pins, allow an accomplice to ensure a cheater receives higher bowling scores.

Scam generally describes various actions designed to undermine rules in order to gain unfair advantage. This includes bribery, cronyism and nepotism in any situation in which people are favored on the basis of inappropriate criteria. The rules being violated can be explicit or come from an unwritten code of conduct based on morals, ethics, or custom that makes the identification of fraudulent behavior a potentially subjective process. Fraud can specifically relate to infidelity. Someone who is known for cheating is called a Scammers in British English and a Scammers in American English. A person referred to as a "scammer" doesn't necessarily cheat all the time, but rather relies on fraudulent tactics to gain a reputation for them.


A small cheat sheet can be used to cheat during an academic exam.

Academic cheating is a common occurrence in high schools and colleges in the United States. Statistically, 64% of public students admit to having tested seriously. 58% say they have plagiarized. 95% of students admit to cheating. This includes tests, homework copying, and papers. However, only 50% of private students admit this. The report was prepared in June 2005 by Donald McCabe, professor at Rutgers University, for the Center for Academic Integrity. The results were partially confirmed by a Gallup survey. In McCabe's 2,001 out of 4,500 students, 74% said they cheated on a test, 72% cheated on a paperwork, and 97% said they had at least copied someone's homework or watched someone's test. 1/3 said they had cheated repeatedly. "The new revolution in high-tech digital information is contributing enormously to the new wave of fraud: online home factories sell formatted reports on practically any topic, there are services that can prepare any kind of homework or conduct online tests for students (despite the fact that this phenomenon and these websites are well known to educators.) Digital audio players can hold notes, and graphing calculators store formulas to solve math problems.

For centuries, rampant examiner cheating and bribery have been common problems with Chinese public service exams, the primary route to professional success for educated men in Imperial China, as in books like this Book of Frauds of the Ming Dynasty described .

Sports, games and gambling


Cheating in sports is the deliberate breaking of rules in order to gain an advantage over the other teams or players. The sport is subject to both the customs and the express rules for actions that are permitted and prohibited at the event and outside the event. Prohibited acts often include drug use to increase performance (known as "doping"), use of non-compliant equipment or changing the condition of the equipment while playing, and willfully harassing or injuring competitors.

One of the best-known examples of suspected doping fraud is Lance Armstrong's use of steroids in professional cycling - particularly controversial as it is widely believed that a high percentage of professional cyclists use banned substances - Ben Johnson's disqualification after the 100 meter final at the 1988 Summer Olympics and the approval of steroid use by retired professional baseball players such as José Canseco and Ken Caminiti. A famous harassment and injury cheating sports scandal occurred in figure skating in 1994 when Tonya Harding's ex-husband Jeff Gillooly and her bodyguard Shawn Eckhardt hired Shane Stant to break Nancy Kerrigan's leg and remove her from competitions and prevent her from doing so to compete with Harding. One of the most famous cases of illegal player action fraud occurred in the 1986 FIFA World Cup quarter-finals when Diego Maradona struck the ball into the goal of English goalkeeper Peter Shilton with his hand. Use of the hand or arm by anyone other than a goalkeeper is illegal under club football rules.

An illegal change in the condition of playground equipment is often observed in bat sports such as baseball and cricket, which are highly dependent on the condition of the equipment. For example, in baseball, a pitcher using a treated baseball (e.g., putting graphite or petroleum jelly on the baseball) or a batsman using a corked bat are some examples of this. Tennis and golf are also subject to equipment fraud with players accused of using illegal string tension or golf clubs of illegal weight, size or brand. Cheating on devices can also be done through the use of external aids in situations where devices are prohibited - for example, in American football through the use of stickum on the hands of recipients, which makes the ball easier to catch. An example of this is Hall of Famer Jerry Rice, who admitted to using stickum regularly and illegally throughout his career and questioned the integrity of his receipt records.

Sports cheating is a common problem. For example, cheating has become so universal in professional bodybuilding that it is now considered impossible to enter a professional competition without cheating and using allegedly banned substances. Bodybuilders who refuse to use banned substances are now competing in natural bodybuilding leagues.

Fraud can also be seen in coaching. One of the most common forms of this is the use of bribery and kickback in recruiting players. Such practices are widespread throughout athletics and are particularly evident in college sports recruitment. Another common form of cheating in coaching is gambler profiting and match fixing. The University of Nevada’s most famous coach, the Las Vegas Runnin 'Rebels basketball team, Jerry Tarkanian, has been accused of both recruitment fraud and gambling fraud throughout his career and has been the subject of intense NCAA scrutiny. Another form of this involves a team coach or other manager engaging in corporate espionage or some other form of prohibited spying to get details about other teams' strategies and tactics. The 2007 New England Patriots videotaping controversy is an example of where the New England Patriots were found videotaping an opposing team from an unauthorized location while trying to get defense signals. As did the Pittsburgh Steelers, who were using legal performance enhancers at the time. However, the Denver Broncos defrauded their consecutive titles in the late 1990s to circumvent the league's salary cap and attract and retain players they otherwise couldn't have gotten. Bypassing rules and procedures of conduct can also be viewed as fraud. some form of agreement.

An example of collusion fraud was the 2002 Winter Olympics figure skating scandal, when the Russian team received a gold medal over the Canadian team in an alleged voting agreement. The Canadian team's silver medals were eventually upgraded to gold at a second awards ceremony, and the French judge was suspended for misconduct. The head of the French Ice Skating Federation was later also suspended and both were excluded from the 2006 Olympic Games. In this case, the International Skating Union has changed its rating system.

Cheating is also used to refer to strength training movements that transfer weight from one isolated or tired muscle group to another or fresh muscle group. This allows the cheater to move an initially larger weight (if the cheat continues throughout an entire training set) or to continue training beyond the point of muscle exhaustion (if the cheat starts halfway through the set). Since strength training is not a sport, cheating has no rule-based consequences, but it can lead to injury or failure to achieve training goals. This is because every exercise is aimed at specific muscle groups and if the correct form is not used, the weight can be transferred away from the target group.

Video games

Amiga computer owners can use the Action Replay card to cheat video games

In video games, cheating can take the form of secret access codes in single player games (such as the Konami code) that unlock a bonus for the player when entered, hacks and exploits that give players an unfair advantage in online multiplayer Games and single games create player modes or unfair agreements between players in online games (e.g. a player who watches a game, removes restrictions such as "fog of war" and reports hostile positions to the game partners).

Attitudes towards fraud vary. Using exploits in single player is usually seen as another form of exploring the game content, unless the player's achievements need to be submitted competitively. This is common in single player games with a high level of difficulty. However, cheating in multiplayer is viewed as immoral by fair players and developers and harshly condemned. Fraud allows casual gamers to complete games at a much faster rate. This can be helpful for some movie or single player games that subjectively may take a long time to complete, as is typical of the role-playing game (RPG) genre. While this can be seen as a hasty advantage that won't harm anyone, in a multiplayer game like MMORPGs the effects of the cheating are much more damaging, breaking the game's risk / reward curve and causing fair players to lose and / or lose online games Character development. Cheating in such games is generally prohibited - although it is often widespread anyway. In many circles, the purchase of items or currency from sources outside of the game is also viewed as a fraud. Many games' terms of use that allow this directly prohibit this activity. One area in which there is little consensus are modern, freely playable business models that support and are supported by the exchange of real money for in-game services, items and benefits. Games that offer excessive perks that are only available to paying customers can be criticized as "pay to win" - sometimes viewed as a form of "fraud" actually legitimized by the system - while games that make real money purchases are cosmetic Restrict changes, generally used, are accepted as fair.

Another form of video game cheating is for a player to do things to interact with game objects that are unforeseen by the programmers and disrupt the object's intended function or reward system. This can affect the way enemies are encountered, goals are achieved, items used, or any other game object that contains a software bug. A common example is the exploitation of mistakes in finding the path of an enemy. If a player can cause an enemy to "get stuck" in a particular feature of the terrain, that player can usually safely kill the enemy remotely, even if they are much stronger, and for greater rewards than the player's ability supposed to be at this level of progress. Another example was common in early first person shooter games and involved skipping a gun's reload timer by quickly switching guns without actually reloading the guns, resulting in an instant reload. This can also be achieved by changing game files to replace the normal files, or image graphics that have been changed to allow better visibility of the targets, etc. - for example, by replacing the colors of a dark enemy to blend in with Background with a light color that allows for instant visibility and alignment. In general, there are often concerns that this is not really cheating, as it is the programmers' fault that such an exploit even existed. However, technically, like in live sports, if the player does not play the game in an officially approved manner and violates unwritten rules, it is a scam. In some cases, this behavior is directly prohibited by the game's Terms of Use.


Putting money on an event increases the motivation to cheat beyond directly participating competitors. As with sports and gaming, gambling cheating is generally related to directly violating rules or laws, or misrepresenting the event being wagered on or affecting the outcome. A boxer taking a dive, a casino playing with stealthily loaded dice, rigged roulette wheel or slot machine or card game is generally considered a scam because it has misrepresented the probability of the game outcomes being reasonable too expect weather to protect itself from this. However, for a bookmaker to sell a horse to flatter bets on it in shorter odds than salesmanship are more likely to be viewed as a scam, as bettors can use this counter to inform them for them and by exercising skepticism. Doping a horse is a clear example of fraud by disrupting the instruments of the betting event. Again, not every disturbance is deceiving; Spending money to support the health and wellbeing of a horse that has been bet on is not in itself generally viewed as a fraud, nor does it improve the morale of an athlete who has been supported by cheering. In general, a disruption is more likely to be viewed as a fraud when it degrades the standards of a sports competition, harms a competitor, or modifies the apparatus of the event or game.

In the world of gambling, knowing a secret that is not factored into the odds of winning provides a significant benefit that can lead to the perception of fraud. However, legal systems do not regard it as a criminal deception per se to secretly use knowledge in this way. This is in contrast to the financial world, where individuals with certain categories of relationships with a company are not allowed to conduct transactions, which would be the crime of insider trading. This may be due to a stronger presumption of equality between investors or that an employee of the company who also trades in the company's shares has a conflict of interest and has therefore misrepresented himself as a company. An advantage player usually uses mental, observational, or technical skills to decide when and how much to bet and does not interfere with the instruments of the game or break any of his rules. Casino industry officials have claimed that all odds are fraud, but this point of view is not reflected in societies in general or in legislation. As of 2010, the only example of any type of odds game being illegal is a gambler using an assistive device in the state of Nevada, whose legislation is uniquely influenced by major casino companies. Nonetheless, it remains a widespread principle that the law must not restrict the method by which a player can make a decision on a game or bet based on information that he lawfully possesses and that the rules of the game do not exclude him from. In hole carding, a casino player tries to see the face of cards which are dealt face down according to the rules. One way to cheat and profit through gambling is to bet against yourself and then lose on purpose. This is known as throwing a game or diving. Illegal gamblers sometimes pay athletes to lose so they can take advantage of the otherwise unexpected loss. One particularly notorious case is the Black Sox scandal, in which eight players in the 1919 Chicago White Sox took payment from players and purposely played poorly. Another event occurred in boxing when Jake LaMotta was known to go diving against Billy Fox to gain access to a championship game against Marcel Cerdan, a deal offered by the gangsters who controlled professional boxing.


There are various regulations to prevent unfair competitive advantages in business and finance, for example competition law or the ban on insider trading.

The most extreme forms of fraud (e.g. trying to make money by outright deception rather than providing a service) are known as fraud.

See also


External links and further literature

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