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theology

the scientific systemat. Penetration of the teaching of God, d. H. in Islam specifically the comprehensive interpretation of the contents of the creed. Histor. joined the islam. T. as a discipline in the form of the kalām (Arabic: "speech, logos") on the plan, d. H. that apologist. Dogmatics, which has been the ancient art of dialect since the 8th century. Appropriated disputes in order to underpin or discredit certain beliefs (and interlinked political) positions. It was v. a. about the "oneness" (T. Nagel) of God. This included the question of the relationship between God's being and his attributes, as well as their ontolog. Status as well as the problem of interpreting Quranic verses in which it seems that human traits must be ascribed to God. Further theological problems were the compatibility of all-embracing divine predestination and human freedom of action (fate) as well as the compatibility of God's universal goodness (grace) and his allowing sinful action (and his punishment on Judgment Day). In contrast to the T. of Muʿtazila, which flourished between the 8th and 9th centuries and emphasized the cognitive ability and speculative power of human reasoning, a trend that followed revelation and hadith (Sunna) prevailed in particular since al-Ashʿarī (d. 935/36) had reinforced this “orthodoxy” with the armor of the kalām. If he succeeded in the connection between rational argumentation and belief in authority, almost a century later al-Ghazzālī (1058 - 1111) succeeded in synthesizing an intuitive, living experience of God in the manner of mysticism and orthodox, scientific, "dry" knowledge of God in the manner of the scholastics of the Ashʿarī discipleship. In the 13th and 14th centuries - after an exchange with islam. Philosophy - the theosophist formulated by the mystic Ibn alʿArabī (1165-1240). Doctrine of the "oneness of being" (Arabic waḥdat al-wujūd) wide spread; she understands the world and man. as appearances of the attributes of God. Especially because of the associated veneration of saints, these ideas were heavily criticized by Ibn Taimīya (d. 1328), whose "fundamentalist." The concept of a return to the (idealized) Islam of the early days can be linked to many newer T. - The German usage today likes to understand the term T. in a broader sense as well as the doctrine of a way of life and world organization in accordance with religious principles and extends the term when talking about Islam. Often there is also room for Islam. Right from: Anyone from «islam. Theologians »speaks, often actually means legal scholars (scholars). The islam. However, terminology clearly distinguishes between T. and jurisprudence; For the law, the T. only plays a role when it comes to its philosophical and ethical foundation. - On modern T. in the broader sense (i.e. religiously based drafts of a reorganization of politics and society): ʿAbduh, Muḥammad, Reform Islam, Shiites. Nothing to others. T .: Ahl – i Ḥaqq, Alevis, Bahāʾī, Yezidi. - Contemporary. islamist. Ideologies generally allow a confrontation with the actual Sense missing theological questions.

Literature:
Nagel, T .: History of Islam. Theology. From Mohammed to the Present, 1994. - Berger, L .: Islamic Theology, 2010.

Author:
Prof. Dr. Stephan Guth, University of Oslo, Islamic Studies, Oriental Philology, Conceptual History

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.