What is intra-personal communication

Intragroup communication and sympathy influence in electronic communication compared to personal communication



List of abbreviations

List of figures

Diagram Directory

List of tables

Appendix list

1 Introduction
1.1 Initial situation and problem definition
1.2 Objective of the master's thesis
1.3 Structure and procedure of the master's thesis

2 Behavior in groups
2.1 The concept of a group
2.2 Teamwork - decision making and problem solving in groups
2.2.1 The performance function of teamwork
2.2.2 Social function of teamwork
2.3 Group cohesion, group conformity and the need for communication
2.3.1 Group cohesion
2.3.2 Group conformity
2.3.3 Need for communication

3 Communication Basics
3.1 code
3.1.1 Spoken language - orality
3.1.2 Written language - written form
3.2 Channel - Medium
3.3 Communication models
3.3.1 Shannon and Weaver communication model
3.3.2 Watzlawick communication model
3.3.3 Schulz von Thun's communication model
3.4 Verbal and non-verbal communication
3.4.1 Verbal communication
3.4.2 Non-verbal communication
3.5 forms of communication

4 Communication - Personal and Electronic Communication
4.1 Classification of computer-mediated communication media
4.2 Effects of the differences between personal and electronic communication
4.2.1 Effects on the sender
4.2.2 Effects on the recipient
4.3 Key qualification media competence
4.3.1 Choice of media
4.3.2 Further sub-competencies
4.4 Media Effects

5 Email communication
5.1 Media properties
5.2 Writing style and language
5.3 E-mail in the area of ​​conflict between situation, rules and author
5.3.1 The communication situation
5.3.2 Rules in e-mail communication
5.3.3 Author's individual communication theory

6 hypotheses

7 Gathering information (employee survey)
7.1 Concept of information acquisition
7.2 Information gathering methods
7.3 partial survey versus full survey
7.4 Employee survey
7.4.1 Requirements for an employee survey
7.4.2 Questionnaire for the employee survey
7.4.3 Participation and participants
7.4.4 Planning and organizing a survey
7.4.5 Employee survey as part of a process

8 Employee survey in the social department of the city administration of Ludwigshafen am Rhein
8.1 Elaboration of the main focus of the employee survey
8.2 Construction of the questionnaire
8.3 Conducting the employee survey
8.4 Data analysis of the employee survey
8.5 Checking the hypotheses
8.5.1 Checking the hypothesis “Changes in the linguistic style of e-mails are taking place, presumably towards a less formal language compared to the conventional written form; however, the style of language remains more formal than in oral communication. "
8.5.2 Checking the hypothesis "Unpleasant messages are conveyed more directly in e-mail communication than in verbal communication, because certain inhibitions play a lesser role."
8.5.3 Summary of the results
8.6 Further findings from the employee survey

9 Summary and Conclusion



Declaration on honor


During my studies in Entrepreneurial Finance and Venture Capital, I was able to give a ninety-minute lecture on the subject of “Starting a business out of unemployment”, which is very uncomfortable for me. As a social planner for the city administration of Ludwigshafen am Rhein, who has been working in the social sector for 14 years, the topic was very helpful to me. During the lecture I was introduced to Prof. Dr. Wasmayr agreed to also prepare my master's thesis on this.

In the further course of my studies in the lectures on work and organizational psychology I came to the conviction that a master's thesis on behavior in groups in connection with changed communication behavior due to the new media makes more sense for further professional activity, possibly as a manager.

Dr. Alexander Unger immediately declared himself ready to take on my topic "Intragroup communication and the influence of sympathy in electronic communication compared to personal communication". For this and for the support in processing, my thanks.

I would particularly like to thank my wife Andrea Eberle. She had to do without her husband and the father of our daughter Sophie almost completely for three semesters, and especially while writing the master’s thesis, and she always supported me and understood me. On April 26th, 2008 she gave birth to our son Laurin.

I would like to dedicate this work to my wife and our two children.

List of abbreviations

Figure not included in this excerpt

List of figures

Figure 1: Common character set of sender and recipient

Figure 2: Shannon and Weaver's information-theoretical communication model

Figure 3: Levels of semiotics

Figure 4: Schulz von Thun's communication model

Figure 5: Non-verbal communication - postures

Figure 6: Four communication and media skills

Figure 7: Structural structure of an email

Figure 8: Classification of an email in terms of media and conceptual oral or written form

Figure 9: E-mail in the field of tension between situation, rules and author

Figure 10: Process of the information retrieval method

Figure 11: Item with multiple response categories

Figure 12: Unipolar format for scaled responses

Figure 13: Likert format for scaled responses

Figure 14: Implementation methods for an employee survey

Figure 15: Main phases of an AE management program

Figure 16: Employee survey - scaling of the questionnaire

Figure 17: Check questions for complete communication

Figure 18: Sins in employee surveys

Figure 19: Employee survey - invitation email

Figure 20: Employee survey - reminder email

Diagram Directory

Diagram 1: MAB - response from the questionnaires

Diagram 2: MAB - structure of participants by gender

Diagram 3: MAB - Personally preferred forms of communication

Diagram 4: MAB - Actual forms of communication in the social department

Diagram 5: MAB - formality in linguistic style

Diagram 6: MAB - transmission of messages

Diagram 7: MAB - transmission of messages / external assessment

Diagram 8: MAB - timely transmission of messages

Diagram 9: MAB - timely transmission of messages / external assessment

Diagram 10: MAB - Bringing unpleasant messages to the point

Diagram 11: MAB - Bringing unpleasant messages to the point / external assessment

Diagram 12: MAB - inhibition thresholds for unpleasant news

Diagram 13: MAB - inhibition thresholds for unpleasant messages / external assessment

Diagram 14: Being able to use media technically - About the practice effect in dealing with technology

List of tables

Table 1: Countdown of the media society

Table 2: Nonverbal communication - head posture

Table 3: Nonverbal communication - gestures

Table 4: Definition and classification of media

Table 5: Stylistic and linguistic features in emails

Table 6: Standard emoticons and their meaning

Table 7: Characteristics of the email communication situation

Table 8: Parallels between netiquettes and etiquette

Table 9: Netiquette Advice

Table 10: Golden rules for bad email (examples)

Table 11: Data analysis formality of emails and written communications

Table 12: Data analysis "I prefer to talk to my colleagues in person."

Table 13: Data analysis "I prefer to communicate with my colleagues in writing."

Table 14: Data analysis "I prefer e-mail to communicate with my colleagues."

Table 15: Data analysis "In my area, communication between my colleagues is primarily personal."

Table 16: Data analysis "In my area, communication between my colleagues is mainly in writing."

Table 17: Data analysis "In my area, communication between colleagues is mainly via e-mail."

Table 18: Data analysis "I use a lot of smileys in my emails to my colleagues."

Table 19: Data analysis "I only / often use lowercase letters in my emails to my colleagues."

Table 20: Data analysis "I use many abbreviations in my emails to my colleagues."

Table 21: Data analysis "I use a lot of special characters in my emails to my colleagues."

Table 22: Data analysis "I often use colloquial language in my e-mails to my colleagues."

Table 23: Data analysis "I use a lot of smileys in my written messages to my colleagues."

Table 24: Data analysis "I only / often use lower case in my written communications to my colleagues."

Table 25: Data analysis "I use many abbreviations in my written communications to my colleagues."

Table 26: Data analysis "I use many special characters in my written communications to my colleagues."

Table 27: Data analysis "I often use colloquial language in my written communications to my colleagues."

Table 28: Data analysis "I use a less formal style of language in my emails to my colleagues compared to my written communications."

Table 29: Data analysis "In my personal conversations with my colleagues, I use a less formal style of language compared to my e-mails."

Table 30: Data analysis "I transmit pleasant factual information (data, facts, facts) promptly."

Table 31: Data analysis "I convey pleasant factual information in a personal conversation."

Table 32: Data analysis "I am sending positive factual information by email."

Table 33: Data analysis "I transmit unpleasant factual information promptly."

Table 34: Data analysis "I am conveying unpleasant factual information in a personal conversation."

Table 35: Data analysis "I am sending unpleasant factual information by email."

Table 36: Data analysis "I receive positive factual information promptly."

Table 37: Data analysis "I am given pleasant factual information in a personal conversation."

Table 38: Data analysis "I am being sent positive factual information by email."

Table 39: Data analysis "I received unpleasant factual information promptly."

Table 40: Data analysis "I am given unpleasant factual information in a personal conversation."

Table 41: Data analysis "I am being sent unsatisfactory factual information by email."

Table 42: Data analysis "I submit pleasant work orders promptly."

Table 43: Data analysis "I convey pleasant work assignments in a personal conversation."

Table 44: Data analysis "I send positive work orders by email."

Table 45: Data analysis "I submit unpleasant work orders promptly."

Table 46: Data analysis "I pass on unpleasant work orders in a personal conversation."

Table 47: Data analysis "I am sending unpleasant work orders by email."

Table 48: Data analysis "I receive pleasant work orders promptly."

Table 49: Data analysis "I am given pleasant work assignments in a personal conversation."

Table 50: Data analysis "I have received pleasant work orders by email."

Table 51: Data analysis "I received unpleasant work orders promptly."

Table 52: Data analysis "I received unpleasant work orders in a personal conversation."

Table 53: Data analysis "I received unpleasant work orders by email."

Table 54: Data analysis "I criticize my colleague in a timely manner."

Table 55: Data analysis "I criticize the person of my colleague in a personal conversation."

Table 56: Data analysis "I criticize my colleague by email."

Table 57: Data analysis "I criticize the way my colleague works in a timely manner."

Table 58: Data analysis "I criticize the way my colleague works in a personal conversation."

Table 59: Data analysis "I criticize the way my colleague works by email."

Table 60: Data analysis "My colleague criticizes me in a timely manner."

Table 61: Data analysis "My colleague criticizes me personally in a personal conversation."

Table 62: Data analysis "My colleague criticizes me personally via email."

Table 63: Data analysis "My colleague criticizes my way of working promptly."

Table 64: Data analysis "My colleague criticizes my way of working in a personal conversation."

Table 65: Data analysis "My colleague criticizes the way I work by email."

Table 66: Data analysis "I get to the heart of unpleasant messages to my colleague in a personal conversation."

Table 67: Data analysis "I get to the heart of unpleasant messages to my colleague in a written communication."

Table 68: Data analysis "I get to the heart of unpleasant messages to my colleague by email."

Table 69: Data analysis "I have greater inhibitions about conveying unpleasant messages to my colleague in a personal conversation."

Table 70: Data analysis "I have greater inhibitions about conveying unpleasant messages to my colleague in a written message."

Table 71: Data analysis "I have greater inhibitions about sending unpleasant messages to my colleague by email."

Table 72: Data analysis "My colleague has greater inhibitions about conveying unpleasant messages to me in a personal conversation."

Table 73: Data analysis "My colleague has greater inhibitions about conveying unpleasant messages to me in a written message."

Table 74: Data analysis "My colleague has greater inhibitions about sending me unpleasant messages by email."

Table 75: Data analysis "My colleague brings unpleasant messages to the point for me more in a personal conversation."

Table 76: Data analysis "My colleague sums up unpleasant messages for me more in a written communication."

Table 77: Data analysis "My colleague gets to the heart of unpleasant messages by email."

Appendix list

Appendix 1: Being able to use media technically - About the practice effect in dealing with technology

Appendix 2: The top ten DGB netiquettes

Appendix 3: Sample size calculations

Appendix 4: Sins in employee surveys (important mistakes and pitfalls)

Appendix 5: Employee survey - invitation email

Appendix 6: Employee survey - reminder email

Appendix 7: Data analysis of the results of the employee survey at the social department of the city administration of Ludwigshafen am Rhein

1 Introduction

1.1 Initial situation and problem definition

Everyone communicates. Everyday. Communication is essential for people to live together. Communication determines our life, shapes us and our environment. We express fears and desires, our joy and our anger, our sympathy or antipathy by communicating with one or more people.[1]

"[But] the evolution of communication [breaks]."[2]Merten tries to illustrate this phenomenon using the example of a time lapse. It packs the past 5,000 years, since the invention of writing, into one hour and runs a countdown. Nothing happens for over 55 minutes. But within four minutes, events roll over; everything will be made up for:

Figure not included in this excerpt

Table 1: Countdown of the media society[3]

This countdown shows "what rapidly evolving - and accepted!" Medium society is dealing with.[4] For Merten The evolutionary pressure continues to increase, as the communication system has developed into the leading subsystem of modern societies. "Communication is booming."[5] Communication is the general success factor. The cohesion of modern societies is based on communication and the available media. The demand for communication is "downright insatiable [...], tendency: rising even more in the future."[6] And inexpensive e-mails are overtaking letter post, fax and telephone in terms of communication popularity.[7]

In organizations and companies today, data is mainly processed electronically.E-mail is the ideal communication medium for exchanging information electronically - be it for internal or external communication.[8] With regard to external communication, e-mail will be the most important medium in customer communication in the future.[9] In addition, corporate email messages are becoming increasingly popular with consumers, which is why companies value email as an inexpensive means of dialogue. 93 percent of German companies use e-mails, 92 percent telephone advice and 84 percent face-to-face conversations with customers.[10] E-mail messages from companies are now almost as popular as telephone advice (school grade 2.1 compared to 1.9).[11] With regard to internal communication, the e-mail offers "opportunities to ensure a continuous level of information and contact in the working group and thus to maintain a collegial, productive management style even under difficult conditions."[12]

However, communication is influenced by the use of the new communication media, as they filter what is conveyed in terms of spoken and unspoken information. Factual information can be expressed in single characters, i. H. be expressed in words and thus also in writing; can therefore be transmitted well through many media. However, other messages are often also dependent on gestures, tone, body posture, i.e. non-verbal communication. However, many media only transport them to a limited extent or not at all.

However, are the employees[13] appropriately trained in companies and public administration? Do the employees know of the reduction in the communicative variety available to them in face-to-face communication with the new communication media? Do the new media lead to changes in the working groups with regard to group cohesion and group conformity? What influence does sympathy have when communicating with the new media?

1.2 Objective of the master's thesis

The aim of this master's thesis is to make a contribution to the analysis and design of electronic and personal communication in company working groups.

As part of this, a survey is carried out with regard to communication within groups in electronic communication in comparison to personal communication among the employees of the social department of the city administration of Ludwigshafen am Rhein.

1.3 Structure and procedure of the master's thesis

Chapter 2 deals with behavior in groups. First of all, the term group is defined in order to then show the performance function and social function of teamwork. In the context of this, what is understood by sympathy is discussed in more detail. The chapter closes with a discussion of group conformity and group cohesion. The brief consideration should be sufficient to work out that communication is very important for teamwork, cohesion and conformity.

Chapters 3 to 5 are devoted to communication and, in addition to an employee survey carried out in the social department of the city administration of Ludwigshafen am Rhein, are the main part of the master's thesis. Chapter 3 presents the basics, communication models, the distinction between verbal and non-verbal communication and forms of communication. Chapter 4 provides a classification of computer-switched communication media. It also shows the effects of the differences between personal and electronic communication in order to then point out a new key qualification, media literacy. The chapter ends with the presentation of media effects. Chapter 5 deals in detail with e-mail communication with its media properties, writing style and language and the tension between situation, rules and author.

Hypotheses to be checked on e-mail communication are presented in Chapter 6.

In Chapter 7, the employee survey is first thoroughly prepared through theoretical reflection and carefully planned methodologically. Chapter 8 contains the presentation of the implementation of the employee survey in the social department of the city administration of Ludwigshafen am Rhein with the examination of two hypotheses presented in Chapter 6.[14]

Chapter 9 forms the conclusion of the master's thesis with the summary and the conclusion.

2 Behavior in groups

2.1 The concept of a group

The term group is often used as a synonym for the terms quantity, class, category, association, social organization and mass. However, the term group must be distinguished from this. A group is used in social psychology when the following conditions are met:

- There are several people who come together
- influence each other, d. H. they interact with each other ("[...] in which each member can interact with each other.")[15], and
- have common guidelines, i.e. norms for their behavior;
- In these groups the roles of the individuals in the group are clarified, i. H. there is a differentiation of roles.[16]

The above definition gives a group its limit. This makes it clear that their environment begins outside this limit. The group is a social system.[17] A person can always belong to several groups. "People grow up in groups, experience and behave all over the world in the social field of group (s)."[18] Groups can e.g. For example, the family, the church, the recruits in a Bundeswehr training company, the department in a company and within a department clique A. Three main reasons can be deduced from the examples which can lead to the formation of groups: “(1) The consciously planned union in order to achieve a goal. (2) The spontaneous formation of groups which does not pursue an outwardly directed purpose, but which considers the contact itself as a sufficient reason for the union. (3) Groups can be created through external influences, in that society gives some members a common fate. "[19]

The aforementioned features are according to Hug extended by the following features for a work group:

- “There are common goals, mostly also emotional ones. [...]
- The type and density of interactions is decisive for the solution of a task.
- Every change of membership changes the group significantly. "[20]

The group in terms of psychological understanding differs from the working group. The working group is a formal group in the sense of organizational sciences.[21]

2.2 Teamwork - decision making and problem solving in groups

"Decision-making and problem-solving in groups, labeled more concisely in organizational practice with the term" teamwork ", has become increasingly attractive in recent years."[22] This finding of Student in 1975 is still up to date today. However, the question of the performance advantage of groups goes back to Aristotle.[23]From Rosenstiel mentions, not conclusively, "some particularly weighty" arguments for the quantitative increase and qualitative expansion of group work in German companies, which, however, are not relevant for the master's thesis and are therefore not presented.[24]Away names four central reasons for introducing group work and concludes that group work can be worthwhile in organizations.[25]Bungard and Antoni doubt, however, whether "group work as such has really always had such a high priority in practice [...]."[26] The terms team and group are often differentiated in practice and in popular scientific literature. However, it is very questionable whether this distinction makes sense.[27] Decision making and problem solving in groups are important for two reasons, performance function and social function.[28]

2.2.1 The performance function of teamwork

Decision-making in groups is generally said to be superior to individual decision-making. This will inter alia. due to the larger information base to which all group members (can) contribute. "Are n heads better than one?"[29] The question can certainly not be judged conclusively, as it depends on many conditions. In general, there is no performance advantage of groups over individual decision-makers.[30]from Rosenstiel is of the opinion that the question of whether individual work or group work is better, “is as old as it is wrongly asked. In fact, it is crucial [on various criteria]. "[31]

To this end, three efficiency hypotheses can be made:

1. “The group does less than its best member (incompetent majority of the group, discrepancy between qualifications and dominance of individual group members, group pressure).
2. The group does as much as its best member (the most qualified group member wins).
3. The group performs better than its best member (heterogeneity of the members in terms of knowledge and perspectives, no group pressure and positive synergy effects - e.g. compensating for mistakes made by individuals). "[32]

Members of decision-making groups influence each other. On the one hand, these are objective reasons, e.g. B. argumentative superiority, actual expertise and information advantage. On the other hand, there are reasons that appear in social perception, i. H. the perception of people. These include status differences such as competence and power. Furthermore, the credibility that is assigned to a group member.[33] "Among the various dimensions of person perception, sympathy is of central importance."[34] Competence, power, credibility

"If a group member is considered competent, this increases his influence in the group."[35] The impression of competence of a group member is created by observing the performance beforehand, on messages from colleagues or on apparent competence characteristics such as a confident manner.[36]

"The word" power "today has a clearly negative connotation."[37] Power in the form of authority has a great impact on other group members.[38]

The influence of group members arises not from the quantity of their information, but rather from the ability to formulate this knowledge convincingly, i. H. whether it is convincing and credible to the other group members.[39] Sympathy

Sympathy can be pleasure, affection (liking) or positive emotional reaction towards people, things or ideas.[40] “In the feelings of sympathy [...] we experience an overall evaluation of the experiences we have made with another person or with his peers. A wide variety of information flows together here and makes the others appear as helpful or hindering, as friendly or hostile, as pleasant or unpleasant, etc. "[41] Sympathy is from Homans also defined as a sense of social approval.[42]

On the one hand, there are friendly, supportive and rewarding behaviors. On the other hand, there are also characteristics and properties that are rated as positive because they either have a directly rewarding effect or are in line with social values ​​and standards. The question arises as to which factors cause a person to be perceived as sympathetic. Both external attractiveness (appearance) and similarity, compliments, contact and cooperation as well as conditioning and associations can be considered as sympathetic factors.

"Every new encounter is initially characterized by restraint, uncertainty, insecurity, reservations, fears and an inner willingness to defend themselves."[43] Reactions to strangers are never emotionally neutral. The new acquaintance is not met with completely neutral feelings. Certain stimuli, such as external attractiveness, are assessed and influenced by biases from specific previous interactions.[44]

Knowledge of the presence of these factors can come about in a number of ways. This can be experiences through direct interaction, observations as an outsider and / or information from a third party. Sympathy and aversion depend on the information and opinions about the irritant. In addition, a much better knowledge of the interaction partner, i.e. the degree of familiarity, is important for the determination of certain properties. Usually sympathy arises spontaneously and immediately. The first impression - within a fraction of a second the interaction partner has formed an image - is decisive and cannot be influenced.[45] "The development of a friendship is accompanied by a growth in the strength of mutual sympathy and a broadening of the basis of sympathy through the acceptance of ever wider areas of the personality of the other". In this development phase, experiences are gained which make it possible to assess the usefulness of the stereotype. You react more and more in an individual way. The feelings are based on empirical values ​​that could be gained in the previous interactions. The development of a friendship should definitely be equated with the development of the relationship in the company environment between colleagues and employees and managers. Finally show Schulers Studies on sympathy and influence in decision-making groups, "that one is more willing to follow the arguments of sympathetic rather than those of less sympathetic interlocutors [...]."[46] However, some characteristics are not conducive to sympathy, but merely suitable for feeling respect and admiration.

“Attitudes towards people seem to differ from attitudes towards non-people in some key ways; a difference resulting from the fact that things cannot have any awareness or understanding of their observer. Relationships that we can enter into with non-human objects are therefore very different from those that we establish with other people: Things react to us, but we can only really interact with people. "[47] The human imagination allows relationships to be established with animals, plants, characters from fiction or even mechanical objects. On the other hand, people see other people as objects rather than subjects, e.g. B. Women are viewed as "sex objects" and business people see each other as useful "contacts". However, interactions only arise from person to person. "The lower [however] the sympathy [is], the lower [is] the interaction."[48]

It is noteworthy that the "vast majority of research into interpersonal attraction does not explore real life relationships." Rather, sympathy towards strangers is explored.[49] External attractiveness

Good-looking people enjoy an advantage in social interaction, which is, however, often greatly underestimated. The so-called halo effect has the effect that the overall impression of a person through a single positive feature, e.g. B. the appearance, is dominated.

Good-looking people are automatically assigned positive traits such as talent, friendship, honesty, and intelligence. It is interesting here that these attributions are made without suspecting that they are influenced by external attractiveness. If a certain dimension is assessed positively, it is concluded that this also applies to other dimensions. Outwardly more attractive people are judged more positively than less attractive people. It is easier for good-looking people to influence others. They manage to convince others of their opinion more easily and are more likely to get what they ask for.[50]

"Attractiveness makes you likeable, and sympathy makes you docile [...] that attractive people are less likely to be convicted of a crime, find a job more easily, earn more and are more likely to be seen as nice, interesting and competent."[51] Similarity

"[...] on the one hand" opposites attract ", on the other hand" like to join like one another ". Social psychological research shows that one should rather trust the second of these "wisdoms". "[52] People who are similar to us in supposedly many ways are likeable. The similarity can be in origin, in political, religious or economic opinions or regarding other people, in character traits or in lifestyle, but also in external appearance (posture, mood, expression, etc.), i.e. personality traits as well as in skills and judgment .

In addition, the claim to have similar interests or a similar origin is often sufficient to give the impression of similarity. Even seemingly insignificant or small similarities do not fail to have an effect and produce positive reactions.

Kaufmann and Zener found that people with desirably similar attributes are experienced more similarly than those with neutral attributes. Others who are dissimilar in desirable attributes are perceived to be more dissimilar than in neutral traits. People "are judged the more attractive, the more similar they are judged by the judges."[53]

Izard (1960) claims that personality resemblance makes it easier to express positive feelings (sympathy, appreciation) and that it is these positive feelings that determine individual and interpersonal behavior. "[54] Compliments

"Communicating that someone is fond of us can be a wonderfully effective means of getting us to reciprocate that sympathy and making us available for their cause."[55]

People have a weakness for compliments, that is, for praise and recognition. Even if these are probably not entirely real, there is affection for the flatterer. Apparently there is a tendency to mechanically respond positively to compliments. If an attempt at tampering is detected, however, good faith has its limits. As a rule, however, compliments promote sympathy and thus the willingness to do what the other demands of one.[56] Contact and cooperation

Contact can usually be conducive to sympathy as it creates familiarity. This is especially true if the contact takes place under positive conditions. If this contact is connected with negative experiences, however, the opposite occurs. Joint and successful cooperation can be a positive condition. Team-oriented cooperation can therefore be sympathetic. Cooperation has a great influence on the development of sympathy. Cooperation means working towards the same goal, i.e. pulling in the same direction.[57] Conditioning and associations

"The mere association with bad or good things affects how popular we are with others."[58] Sympathy is equated with a positive attitude and antipathy with a negative attitude towards a person.

To Byrne and Clore Agreement and lack of agreement between statements of another person's attitudes and one's own attitudes are interpreted as a reward and punishment. "One perceives the confirmation of one's opinions by others as a reward (especially when it comes to important opinions and important people), and the punishment is the questioning of one's own opinions."[59]

- People and things that are paired with a reward are rated as more attractive
- In structured conversations one reacts faster to similar than to dissimilar statements of attitude
Similar strangers are preferred as work partners because they are perceived to be smarter, more decent, better adapted and better informed than people with different attitudes
- Increased skin conductivity is shown when attitude similarity or dissimilarity causes strong sympathy or antipathy

Adjustment can after Lott and Lott can also be seen as an implicit anticipatory goal reaction that is conditioned by association and stimuli. Studies have shown the following:

- Children who have been rewarded choose others as friends who were present at the reward but not responsible for it
- A person has acquired secondary reinforcing qualities when they are liked. The person influences approach and avoidance behavior and increases motivation. If the presence of the liked person is paired with a certain reaction, the probability of this reaction occurring increases
- There is a connection between interpersonal attitudes and various interpersonal behaviors

Attitude stimuli can follow Heads of state also have three functions (classic conditioning, reinforcement and discriminative control). Thereafter, an attitude is acquired when a previously affective neutral person or a previously affective neutral thing is paired with reinforcement. "The new attitude object can then serve as an amplifier in further associations and exercise discriminative control over a multitude of behaviors such as imitation, voting, helping."[60]

2.2.2 Social function of teamwork

The social function of teamwork is seen in the possibility of satisfying the social needs of the people involved. Social identity, social support and social reality mean that the social function - at least directly - contributes to the increase in performance.[61]

Social identity concerns the feeling of belonging to a group. Social support describes the expected positive reaction of others to the behavior of the individual. Social reality describes the common understanding of the environment that can arise in a group. It can help reduce complexity and avoid ambiguity[62] contribute.

2.3 Group cohesion, group conformity and the need for communication

“The essence of a group is not the similarity or dissimilarity of its members, but their dependence on one another. A group can be characterized as a dynamic whole; this means that a change in the state of one part changes the state of another part. The degree of mutual dependence among the members of the group varies from a loose "mass" to a compact unit. "[63] In addition to the dependency, identification with the group is a prerequisite for membership. For Irle there is membership in a group only "if the person concerned invests measurably in this group, makes an effort for the group and receives income from the group."[64] For Irle the distinction between inter- and intra-group relationships is arbitrary. So two people as individuals can already form two social supra-units, "whose behavioral exchange can be represented on the level of inter-group relationships."[65] For this work it is crucial that there are intra-group relationships with members of the same working group.

2.3.1 Group cohesion

Group cohesion is the “type and [the] extent of the internal cohesion of a group, its psychosocial climate. [...] Cohesion [is the] climate that influences the provision of services. "[66] In cohesive groups, the mutual influence of the members on one another is stronger than in groups with less cohesion. The members of cohesive groups feel more attracted to the group as a whole and also find each other more sympathetic. They are characterized by a high frequency of interaction, which in turn is closely related to the sympathy that the group members feel for one another.[67] Cohesion refers to the forces that hold the group together and thereby counteract destructive influences.[68] “So it can be said that the cohesion of a group has something to do with the sympathetic relationships between the group members, more precisely: that the closer they are, the greater it is.[69]

2.3.2 Group conformity

Group members depend on others for the satisfaction of needs. Therefore it is important to maximize the sympathy of others for yourself. They behave in conformity "to the extent that a lack of agreement with others can lead to anticipated antipathy or even outright rejection, but agreement leads to positive evaluation and maintenance of membership in a group."[70] The conformity of the group members, i.e. the willingness to act according to the group norms, is therefore higher, the greater the expected or actual rewards that the group members promise themselves. It is higher, the more successfully the group works, the more the group goals are shared and pursued by all members, the more intensive the interaction between the group members and the stronger the feeling of unity. The list could go on.[71]

The interesting question is what makes the difference between group cohesion and group conformity. It makes sense to equate cohesion with conformity. "Now of course you have to be careful not to get into a circle, because if you define a cohesive group as the one whose members are subject to strong mutual influence, an examination of the connection between group cohesion and conformity is no longer possible or obviously nonsensical, it is about showing that sympathy and influence can often be observed together. "[72]

2.3.3 Need for communication

Festinger, Schachter and Back 1950 dealt with three causes of the emergence of the need to communicate within a group: (a) communication due to pressure to conform within a group, (b) communication due to locomotive forces[73] within a social structure and (c) communication based on certain emotional states.[74]

In connection with communication is still on the language accommodation theory of Giles and Powesland (1975), which is based on two forms of accommodation. The convergence and the divergence. As convergent language behavior, the approach to the language style of the communication partner, i.e. the colleagues in the working group, and as divergent language behavior, the distancing from the language style of the colleagues. Divergence is therefore seen as social dissociation and convergence as a sign of social integration.[75]

The brief consideration should be sufficient to make it clear that interaction / communication, but also sympathy, is the basis for teamwork (performance function and social function), group cohesion and group conformity. "The common denominator [...] is the interaction, and this interaction leads to certain outcomes (" outcomes ") for each member of a group."[76]

3 Communication Basics

Different disciplines deal with communication[77] apart. These include, among others. psychology, sociology, communication sciences, which has led to a variety of terms. This is illustrated by over 160 different definitions of the term communication.[78]Scherer and Wallbott also point out that there is still no consensus on a uniform definition of the term communication. He believes that a conceptual clarification is necessary in order to be able to make a clear distinction between communication and interaction.[79]Watzlawick however, offers a “simple” definition: communication is the general name of a field of knowledge. “The second meaning, on the other hand, needs a subdivision. A single communication is called a message or, if no confusion is possible, a Communication. A reciprocal flow of messages between two or more people is called an interaction. "[80]

Human communication is a two-way process of conveying meaning, namely interaction. Communication takes place as an intentional, but also as an unconsciously controlled transfer process between people. “Action or inaction, words or silence are all communicative: they influence others, and these others cannot in turn Not react to this communication and communicate with it yourself. "[81] In this master’s thesis communication is i. S. of Watzlawick limited to the exchange of information between people.

When looking at intentional communication, the connection with the human ability of sociability becomes apparent, i. H. the ability to form society, which requires processes of social negotiation. Communication is therefore a prerequisite for all forms of sociability.

Communication is basically the process of transferring information from a sender to a recipient using meaningful characters or codes for coordinating actions and shaping reality. Communication is the process of exchanging signs between people and is therefore a social process.[82] Signs and no meanings are transmitted. The characters are encoded by the sender and decoded by the receiver. "The answer runs in reverse order in the same steps: coding - transmission - decoding."[83] In order to be effective, communication is also closely linked to the processes of understanding and success. The prerequisite for this is common semantics[84] at the sender and receiver, so that the characters or codes are assigned the same or at least a similar meaning. Semantics is, among other things. depending on belonging to the same language culture and the attribution of meaning, which in turn also depends on education and experience. Assignments or reconstructions of meaning on the recipient side are cognitive processes. If both sides (sender and recipient) give the sign a synonymous meaning, there is a good chance that communication will be successful. Problems can arise, however, if the sender uses foreign words that the recipient does not understand.

Figure not included in this excerpt

Figure 1: Common character set of sender and recipient[85]

Elements of the communication act are sender (communicator, source of information), recipient (addressee, recipient), code (language, print, image, sound, character set, language layer), channel (physical transmission path, e.g. language, sound waves, writing) , Context (situational determinants) and content (object of communication).

The communication process includes encryption (encoding), transmission (signaling) and decryption (decoding, interpretation).[86]

3.1 code

Communication takes place using codes. They are perceptible signals that stand for something other than themselves. They are thus representatives. Codes are artificially created representations of meaning by the "humans"[87]. Codes always represent a relationship between what is designated and what is significant. They can be divided into natural and artificial on the one hand and primary and secondary codes on the other.

A natural code is e.g. B. Cough as a sign of a cold. As an artificial code, coughing could be interpreted as a sign of the individual-situational mental state, such as embarrassment.

Primary codes are all abstract codes, such as characters, letters, digits. Secondary codes are real things. They not only stand as a code for something else, but exist in reality. The Brandenburg Gate is the landmark of Berlin, if not Germany. But it is also a real building.

Language is an artificially created code. It represents content and meanings in an abstract way. Language is socially determined and subject to historical developments. It is a system "for expressing inner-psychic mental, emotional, cognitive processes / content, for interpersonal exchange and for storing information".[88]

Our language signs are based on the phonetic principle.[89] Basic sounds or their combination are assigned to certain symbols, which in turn form words, which can then be combined into sentences using grammatical rules.

Language has "a strong feedback effect on personality when Popper and Eccles conclude that becoming a" perfect human being [...] is based on a maturation process in which language acquisition plays an extraordinary role: you not only learn to perceive and your own To interpret perceptions, but also to be a person, an I ”.[90] "Language is the most important, but not the only means of communication."[91]

Language exists in written and spoken form.[92]

3.1.1 Spoken language - orality

Orality describes the spoken language and is therefore, in contrast to the written language, tied to the human body. It represents the basic form of human language.

A distinction can be made between primary and secondary orality. Primary orality occurs in cultures that exist without knowledge of script; H. it is unaffected by the influence of Scripture. Secondary orality is only in connection with technical achievements, e.g. B. Telephone, radio, television, WWW, and is influenced by them.

Orality occurs mainly in social situations. It is characterized by spatial, temporal ties or by a medium that can transmit acoustic signals.

The ability to plan ahead for the participants is relatively poor in the case of orality, as it takes place in a communication process. This is especially true in dialogical or interpersonal communication. In principle, however, this does not apply to monological speech acts, such as speeches, which can be precisely planned.Instead of orality, it is more a question of verbalising literacy.[93]

3.1.2 Written language - written form

In addition to the spoken language, "which is the most widely practiced form of communication",[94] there is the written language. The written language, script, is a means of recording spoken language. It is based on a formal system of graphic signs.

Writing offers the possibility of fixing spoken language, which can then exist independently of space and time. It makes the audible visible. The cognitive memory functions, as they were before the invention of writing, are no longer necessary because content can be stored or conveyed.

In contrast to orality, written language represents linguistic content and meanings outside the human body. However, it presupposes the mastery of a technology, font production, (more or less).

In contrast to spoken language, content can be detached from its context through written fixation. They are usually not in a direct interactive context. Writing can therefore be more carefully considered, constructed and planned. This can lead to a higher information density and complexity of the information.

The written script is characterized by its own style: it is usually not dialectal and no colloquial terms are chosen. It is subject to norms that ensure grammatical correctness.[95]

3.2 Channel - Medium

The channel, i.e. the physical transmission route, is also called the medium[96] designated. A distinction is made between two definitions:

(1) “Culturally generated and conventionalized systems of symbols and signs that serve to transmit and, if necessary, store information.
(2) All objects, technical devices or configurations that can save messages and that can be used to communicate. "[97]

According to definition (1), a medium is the agency that mediates between two or more actors and enables and supports the exchange of information. This also includes human language.

Human language is also often considered natural in communication, i.e. H. understood without the inclusion of a medium. It takes place directly between the actors. Therefore, definition (2) is understandable, which always understands the transmission of the code as a medium by means of an object that is located outside the human body. In the sense of this definition, the sound waves for transmission are not understood as a medium in the narrower sense of the spoken language.[98]

"Whether or not a communication channel is used does not depend directly on the advantages of this channel, but on the environment - that is to say: on the availability of further channels if these are also or even better suited to the topic to be treated."[99]

Media can be separated from one another in four functions - media of perception, media of storage / processing, media of transmission and media of communication.

Media of perception are objects that contribute to increasing human perception. In the visual field, these include: Glasses, microscope and in the acoustic field, among others. Hearing aids. These media have the effect of increasing the perceptual ability of individuals, e.g. B. with poor eyesight the use of glasses to correct the visual acuity, no effects.

The media of storage is media for recording, i. H. to store knowledge that can be made available later. The most important storage medium is writing. With it, information can be better preserved. The complexity of the information has increased. The storage media of today's generation are used not only for storage but also for processing and changing information.

With the media of transmission, information should cope with spatial as well as temporal boundaries. Information should overcome the spatial distance without loss of information, without interference and as quickly as possible. The messenger carried a message from one place to another. Today courier services take over, among other things. by bike or even by plane. Other transmission or distribution media are television, but also networked systems such as the Internet.

All media used for communication between two or more people are media of communication. Verbal social interaction takes place through human language, which is the most important medium. The language is supported by body language characters. In this way the body also becomes a medium that produces signs, accompanies them and is at the same time a mediating object.

Other communication media are telephone, letter and internet. In some cases, they are not just communication media, but also transmission and / or storage media. They thus have a function that goes beyond the purely communicative.

3.3 Communication models

In the past few decades, numerous communication models have been developed to describe and analyze human communication. They each emphasize different aspects. With the help of the models, the complexity of a real communication process is reduced. They thus represent a simplification of reality.

The communication model of Shannon and Weaver from 1949, is fundamental to most communication models.[100] It is still valid today for the scientific-mathematical side of information transfer. In addition, the model of Watzlawick, which describes in depth the interaction between the communication partners, who influence each other, and the model of Schulz von Thun be presented with a socio-psychological approach.

3.3.1 Shannon and Weaver communication model

Shannon and Weaver describe with their model the path of a message from its source through the transmission channel to its addressee.

Figure not included in this excerpt

Figure 2: Shannon and Weaver's information-theoretical communication model[101]

An information source creates a message and is intended to be transmitted to a recipient. The message consists of characters that are encrypted by the transmitter and converted into a signal and transmitted over a channel. The recipient decrypts the signal and converts it back into a message. There may be disruptions on the way.

Shannon and Weaver were of the opinion that "content, its meaning or meaning" does not matter. "Shannon even says explicitly: Information has no meaning. "[102] For Shannon and Weaver the irritations and disruptions in the information transfer process were of particular importance. But "interpersonal communication processes are more than the technical transfer of information between sender and recipient."[103]

Further restrictions are briefly outlined below: The linearly directed information transmission takes place without feedback from the transmitter to the receiver. The model represents only one-way communication.[104]Shannon and Weaver also consider only one recipient. However, a message is often addressed to a variety of recipients, e.g. B. in a lecture.

In addition, not all communication problems arise when sending and receiving as well as in the communication channel. The understanding of a message often depends on the respective environment of the sender and recipient. It is often necessary to understand the environment of the communication partner, what was taken up with the levels of semiotics. Other communication models have been developed that primarily take human relationships into account.

3.3.2 Watzlawick communication model

Watzlawick 1969 presented a communication model with pragmatic rules of communication. He divides human communication into three areas: syntactics - semantics - pragmatics, the levels of semiotics.

Figure not included in this excerpt

Figure 3: Levels of semiotics[105]

Syntactic stands for the technique of transmission. It mainly deals with technical problems related to the transmission of information. This includes, among others. Coding and channel issues. A fault occurs e.g. B. on when the receiver does not understand individual words of the sender due to ambient noise. The syntactic corresponds roughly to the communication model of Shannon and Weaver.

Semantics is the meaning of the message with which the sender wants to convey a certain presentation content. Semantics is concerned with the meaning of the characters and symbols used by the sender and the understanding by the recipient, who should attach the same meaning to them. Problems can arise in a company due to the many technical terms and foreign words that are used by the sender but not understood by the recipient. This is also the case with the use of anglicisms or business terms that are used in companies but are not understood due to a lack of basic understanding.[106]

Pragmatics looks at the relationship and behavior of those taking part in the communication process. The sender usually wants to achieve a certain effect on his communication partner. A disturbance can e.g. B. exist if an employee in a company does not follow the instructions given.

Communication is a system; all participants in the communication process are therefore part of the system. Communication is not a linear process, but a circular system with feedback.

Watzlawick describes in five principles (or axioms) general basic properties of human communication.[107] The model can also be used to identify and correct communication problems.

- You can't Not communicate: In addition to the pure content of the message, the recipient also perceives a lot of other different information (for more details see 3.4.2 Nonverbal Communication).
- Every communication has a content and relationship aspect: The “what” of a message is described by the content aspect; the "how" through the relationship aspect. Both aspects are important for communication, as the aim is not only to convey facts, but also to influence the social relationship between the people involved. The perception of the recipient as a person and an understanding of their message are crucial for successful communication. It can therefore be important whether a manager communicates himself or lets a third party communicate. A disruption in the relationship aspect can lead to a devaluation of the content.
- Punctuation of the communication processes: Communication is circular, i. H. it has no beginning and no end. Each phase in communication has a previous and a subsequent phase. The communication can be broken down into individual distinguishable sections, the punctuation. Statements and behaviors can be received and interpreted in different ways. A punctuation problem can e.g. For example, if a supervisor criticizes his employee for a lack of commitment, but the employee attributes his behavior to the constant criticism of the supervisor.
- Analog and digital modalities: Information can be presented in analog and digital form. Analog forms of communication are non-verbal communication and the relationship aspect. Digital communication takes place primarily in spoken and written language. Both forms of communication - analog and digital - complement each other in successful communication. The principle gives indications as to which communication media can be chosen and how they can be designed.
- Symmetry and complementarity: Communication is determined by the social position of the communication participants. The same position leads to a symmetrical one[108] Communication; the partners are equal. Different positions require complementary, i.e. complementary, communication. Different communication partners complement each other through their differences to form a whole.


[1] See Romain / Tiberius, 2003, page 12

[2] Merten, 2007, page 8

[3] Merten, 2007, page 8

[4] Köhler / Arndt, 2003, page 1

[5] Merten, 2007, page 9

[6] Merten, 2007, page 11

[7] See Kruse, 2000, page 10

[8] See Voigt, 2003, page 9

[9] See novomind, 2004, as of April 24, 2008

[10] See Görsdorf-Kegel, 2008, as of April 24, 2008

[11] See novomind, 2008, as of April 24, 2008

[12] Seltmann, 2007, as of April 24, 2008

[13] In the future, only the masculine form will be chosen for better legibility.

[14] Research on the analysis of group processes is according to Bungard and Antoni in "more or less artificial research laboratories on the basis of ad hoc assembled (student) groups, so that due to the fading out of organization-specific framework conditions, important factors were not effective and consequently the external validity of such investigations is questionable." Organizational psychological analyzes of group processes in Real work situations with group members who have been working together for a long time are “still underrepresented to this day” despite their emphasized importance. Bungard / Antoni, 2004, page 439 f.

[15] Homans, 1972 (b), p.103; Homans points out that while a group is defined by interaction, "the interaction [but not] constitutes the whole of group life." Homans, 1972 (b), 104

[16] See Nawratil / Rabaioli-Fischer, 1999, page 116;

[17] See Homans, 1972 (b), page 103 ff.

[18] Hug, 2008, p. 303

[19] Thomas, 1991, (Vol. I), p. 99

[20] Hug, 2008, p. 317

[21] See von Rosenstiel, 2004, page 389

[22] Schuler, 1975, p. 11

[23] See Thomas, 1991, (Vol II), page 147

[24] See von Rosenstiel, 2004, page 388

[25] The four reasons for introducing group work are:

- Increasing complexity and dynamics of the market and the associated processes
- Increasing desire for self-actualization at work
- Technical progress with shorter innovation cycles and more learning requirements
- Principal advantages of working in groups over individual work

See Wegge, 2004, page 30 and page 44

[26] Bungard / Antoni, 2004, page 440

[27] See Wegge, 2004, page 20; von Rosenstiel, 2004, page 389, which takes up Wegge's argument.

[28] See Hug, 2008, page 307

[29] Porter, 1963, quoted in Schuler, 1975, p. 15

[30]Brodbeck makes it clear that performance represents, on the one hand, goal-oriented behavior and, on the other hand, the result or success of this goal-oriented behavior. He mentions a third aspect: productivity “in the sense of an efficient achievement of goals.” Brodbeck, 2004, page 417; There are several holistic explanatory models of team effectiveness that Rohn to be introduced. Specifically, these are the input-process-output model by McGrath, the normative model of working group effectiveness by Hackman and the model of working group effectiveness by Gladstein. See Rohn, 2006, page 61 ff,

[31] von Rosenstiel, 2004, page 393

[32] Voss / Gutenschwager, 2001, page 42

[33] See Schuler, 1975, page 13 ff.

[34] Schuler, 1975, p. 22

[35] Schuler, 1975, p. 18

[36] See Schuler, 1975, page 18 ff.

[37] Pinnow (2006), 228

[38] See Schuler, 1975, page 20 f.

[39] See Schuler 1975, page 21 f.

[40] See Die Zeit, 2005, page 330; Duden, 1996, page 725

[41] Brandstätter et al., 1971 cited from Schuler, 1975, page 22

[42] See Homans, 1972 (a), p. 153

[43] Sturmlechner, 2003, page 12

[44] See Cialdini, 1998, page 202 ff .; Cialdini, 2006, page 218 ff .; Mikula, 1977, page 22 ff .; Clore / Itkin, 1977, p. 42; Duck, 1977, page 144 f.

[45] See Sturmlechner, 2003, page 12

[46] Schuler, 1975, p. 9

[47] Levinger / Snoek, 1977, page 109

[48] Homans, 1972 (a), 154

[49] See Duck, 1977, p. 143

[50] See Cialdini, 1998, page 202 ff .; Cialdini, 2006, page 218 ff .; Mikula, 1977, page 24 ff.

[51] Cialdini, 1998, page 204 f.

[52] von Rosenstiel, 2004, page 391

[53] Fuchs / Unger, 2007, page 500

[54] See Cialdini, 1998, page 205 ff .; Cialdini, 2006, page 221 ff .; Mikula, 1977, page 25 f .; Duck, 1977, p. 154; Schuler, 1975, page 29 f.

[55] Berscheid & Walster, 1978, quoted from Cialdini, 1998, page 208; Cialdini, 2006, p. 224

[56] See Cialdini, 1998, page 208 f .; Cialdini, 2006, page 224 f.

[57] See Cialdini, 1998, page 209 ff .; Cialdini, 2006, page 225 ff.

[58] Lott and Lott, 1965, quoted from Cialdini, 1998, page 224 f .; Cialdini 2006, p. 238

[59] Schuler, 1975, p. 25

[60] Cf. Cialdini, 1998, page 222 ff .; Cialdini, 2006, page 236 ff .; Clore / Itkin, 1977, page 52 ff., Page 58 ff., Page 63 ff. And page 73; Schuler, 1975, page 25 ff.

[61] See Schuler, 1973, page 8 f.

[62] Ambig, ambique means ambiguous, cf. Duden, 1996, p. 108

[63] Lewin, 1953, page 128, quoted from Deutsch / Krauss, 1976, page 50

[64] Irle, 1975, p. 451

[65] Irle, 1975, p. 450

[66] Hug, 2008, p. 309

[67] See Schuler, 1975, page 32 ff.

[68] See Deutsch / Krauss, 1976, page 50

[69] Schuler, 1975, p. 34; The representation of Irle on group cohesion, see Irle, 1975, page 451 ff.

[70] by Avermaet, 1996, p. 509

[71] See Schuler, 1975, page 34; Here, too, it is advisable to illustrate Irle on group conformity, see Irle, 1975, page 457 ff. and Thomas, 1991, (vol. II), page 97 ff.

[72] Schuler, 1975, page 34 f.

[73] Lokomotion is the force with which a group approaches its goal or the fulfillment of its task. Lokomotion is the level of performance. See Hug, 2008, page 308 f.

[74] See Deutsch / Krauss, 1976, page 52 ff.

[75] See Thimm / Cordes / Hub / Jakob / Kruse, 1996, page 9 f.

[76] Wilke / van Knippenberg, 1996, page 455 f.

[77] The word communication is derived from the Latin communicatio - communication, communicare - partake, communis - together. Communication can therefore be described as connection, exchange and understanding between people. See Misoch, 2006, page 6; Böhringer / Bühler / Schlaich, 2007, page 4; Mentzel, 2007, page 1

[78] See Misoch, 2006, page 7

[79] See Scherer / Wallbott, 1984, page 14

[80] Watzlawick / Beavin / Jackson, 2003, page 50 f.

[81] Watzlawick / Beavin / Jackson, 2003, page 51; Schulz von Thun even speaks of the "basic law" of communication. See Schulz von Thun, 2005, page 34

[82] “Not to forget: it's not just people who communicate with each other, things also increasingly communicate. Even the little things in life, pets and books, might one day become communicative. This type of communication with the help of sensors and other small devices, we think of RFID, also belongs in the image of tomorrow's mobile communication. ”Eberspächer, 2007, page 6

[83] Herrmann / Hüneke / Rohrberg, 2006, page 46

[84] Semantics is the study of the meaning of characters / words.

[85] Mentzel, 2007, page 5

[86] See Die Zeit, 2005, page 134 f .; Misoch, 2006, page 8 f .; Schulz von Thun, 2005, page 25 f.

[87] Misoch, 2006, p.10

[88] Misoch (2006), 11

[89] Further principles are the logographic principle (each character is assigned a clear meaningful function, e.g. in Chinese) and the ideographic principle (complex meanings are symbolized by a single character).

[90] Misoch, 2006, p.12

[91] Lenke / Lutz / Sprenger, 1995, page 33

[92] See Misoch, 2006, page 10 ff.

[93] See Misoch, 2006, page 12 ff.

[94] Romain / Tiberius, 2003, page 56

[95] See Misoch, 2006, page 14 ff.

[96] Medium is derived from the Latin "medius", where medium means "in the middle" or "in between" and medium means "middle", "center" and "mediating". Media is the plural of medium, see Duden, 1996, p. 484

[97] Misoch, 2006, p. 16

[98] See Misoch, 2006, page 16 f.

[99] Merten, 2007, page 20

[100] See Bussmann, 1983, page 246

[101] See Misoch, 2006, page 7; Schönenberger, 2006, page 50, Böhringer / Bühler / Schlaich, 2007, page 5

[102] Böhringer / Bühler / Schlaich, 2007, page 5

[103] Böhringer / Bühler / Schlaich, 2007, page 5

[104] See Schönenberger, 2006, page 50

[105] See Böhringer / Bühler / Schlaich, 2007, page 6

[106] In the social department of the city administration Ludwigshafen am Rhein was z. For example, the use of business terms such as effectiveness, efficiency, productivity was “modern” for a while, although administrators and social workers did not know their meaning and therefore often misused the terms.

[107] See Watzlawick / Beavin / Jackson, 2003, page 53 ff .; Voss / Gutenschwager, 2001, page 26; Keller, 2004, page 19; Schönenberger, 2006, page 53 f .; Böhringer / Bühler / Schlaich, 2007, page 6 ff .; Mentzel, 2007, page 6 ff.

[108] Symmetrical: mirror image, conforming. See Duden, 1996, page 725

End of excerpt from 197 pages