Who determines which number an athlete wears


NADA employs and trains its own control staff for medication checks on horses. NADA publishes vacancies on its website: Vacancies

NADA Germany does not employ its own doping control officers for human controls, nor does it train any doping control personnel. We commission external companies to carry out our controls. Information on the external companies can be found on our homepage under: Control partners

The first official doping controls at the Olympic Games were carried out in Grenoble in 1968. There were controls before then: In Italy, for example, the first doping controls in cycling were carried out as early as 1955. And in 1963 the entire Austrian national team was disqualified at the Austrian cycling tour after large amounts of amphetamines were found in several top athletes in the course of searches.

Training controls are doping controls that are carried out unannounced outside of competitions. In Germany, these controls are usually organized by NADA. Training controls are carried out for all athletes who are recorded in a NADA test pool. They can be done not only during exercise, but also at home, at school or on vacation.

Further information can be found in the doping control system.

Competition controls are controls that take place within a competition. The aim of NADA is to create a uniform control system for Germany. In 2008, NADA took over the first competition controls from associations and gradually expanded them. With the NADC 2015, NADA has taken over all competition controls of the central associations organized in the DOSB. Further information can be found in the doping control system.


All athletes who

  • Are members of the management team as well as elite passport holders or professionals with a license,
  • Are participants in national and international competitions,
  • are connected to the NADA doping control system.

The controls are carried out by trained personnel. In the case of competitions, the organizer, the association or, on behalf of NADA, are responsible for this. The controls outside of competitions are carried out on behalf of NADA, WADA or the international association by a company that is independent of sport. In Germany, the responsible inspectors always check athletes of the same sex when taking urine samples. The inspectors are obliged to maintain confidentiality.


Training controls

In the case of training controls, NADA selects athletes who are to be checked. The approximately 8,000 athletes in the test pools will not be drawn for the doping controls, but will be specifically checked. This means that top athletes who are in the RTP and are counted in the highest risk group are more controlled than athletes from less endangered sports who are in the NTP and ATP. The international set of rules stipulates that athletes can be checked at any time without notice.

Competition controls

The selection or the selection process of the athletes to be checked is determined by NADA and the Doping control officer (DCO) communicated. The selection of athletes can be based on placement, name (finish control) or by lot. Further information can be found in the doping control system or in the standard for results management / disciplinary procedures (Annex B: Reporting obligations).

The notification of the sampling is usually given without prior notice.

1. Controls at competitions (competition controls)

During a competition, athletes are usually informed personally by a companion, the so-called "chaperone", that they have to go through a doping test.

2. Controls outside of the competitions (training controls)

In the event of an inspection outside of a competition, the athlete is usually visited by the inspector and asked to perform an inspection without prior notice, e.g. in the case of central training measures of the associations at home and abroad, during club training or at home.

The inspection must be carried out in a location that guarantees the necessary discretion and the correctness of the inspection.

In the case of competition controls, the control will take place as soon as possible after the end of the competition. After consultation with the chaperone, an athlete can take part in the award ceremony and press conference beforehand.

Outside of competitions, controls can be carried out in the training facility, but also in the athlete's apartment or at the workplace. In principle, there is no time limit for carrying out doping controls. They can therefore also take place outside the specified test hour. Doping controls are also possible between 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m., even if no test hour for RTP athletes can be stored in ADAMS during this time.

If the control officer arrives at a control outside of a competition, the athlete may complete the activity if this remains within a reasonable time frame. A person of trust may also be sought to accompany the control process. During a competition control, e.g. press conferences, award ceremonies and the like may be concluded. The athlete must ensure that the doping control team can keep an eye on him / her until the control has been carried out in order to rule out possible manipulation. Please refer to the NADC for more information.


The place, time and type of the control, the control person and the athlete's personal data are entered in the doping control protocol. In addition, the athlete must state all medications (if possible with the exact dosage) that they have used in the last seven days. With his or her signature, she / he confirms that the inspection has been carried out properly from his or her point of view. If she / he is of the opinion that something was wrong with the inspection process, she / he should make a note of this in the log.


The urine given during a doping control is divided into two bottles, the A sample and the B sample. Initially, only the A sample is analyzed in the laboratory. If doping substances are detected in the process, but the athlete does not accept the result, he or she can request that the B-sample be analyzed as well. This must be requested in writing within a specified period after the positive result has been obtained. The persons concerned then have to bear the costs for the analysis of the B-sample, unless the analysis does not result in another positive result. The analysis of the B sample can also be ordered by NADA or the relevant national sports association.


The blood values ​​vary from person to person. Therefore, individual blood values ​​are monitored over a longer period of time. In order to arrive at such values, one creates blood profiles. For this purpose, blood samples are taken from an athlete at regular intervals and in different situations (e.g. before and after training camps) and the results are entered in a blood passport. In this way, deviations from the personal norm values ​​can be determined, which can give an indication of doping.

In the case of indirect detection methods, it is not the doping substance sought itself that is detected in the sample, but its effects on certain values ​​(e.g. blood values). For example, the ratio of testosterone and epitestosterone in the body is examined in order to obtain evidence of doping with testosterone. Another example is the indirect detection of EPO using the hematocrit, i.e. the proportion of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the blood.

The word "chaperone" has several meanings; Among other things, it is an English term for "chaperone", ie for a companion who makes sure that everything is in order. That is exactly the role of a chaperone in doping controls. If an athlete is asked to do a doping control in a competition, the chaperone is the one who notifies the athlete about it. The chaperone accompanies the athletes from the time of notification to the inspection. In this way, manipulation of the doping control is to be avoided. When the urine is given, it is not the chaperone but only the control person who is present.


Mixing up the urine samples can be ruled out with certainty. Each of the two bottles (A and B sample) has an identical pre-stamped code number on the bottle itself and on the bottle cap. This number is unique in the world. It will also be noted on the doping control protocol. This ensures that the urine sample can be assigned to the correct athlete using the code number.


Training controls
Between 2003 and 2007, an average of 4,500 training controls were carried out in Germany. From 2008 the number of controls has almost doubled. Since then, around 8,000 training controls have been organized annually. Further information on the training controls carried out can be found in the respective annual reports.

Competition controls
Since 2008, the number of checks carried out by NADA has doubled every year until 2010. In 2011, NADA carried out over 1,000 competition controls for the first time. Since 2015, NADA has been taking over all competition controls of the associations organized in the DOSB. The competition controls are recorded in the respective annual reports.

If the control personnel asks an athlete to perform a control, she / he must take it in any case. Refusing a doping test is a clear violation of the anti-doping regulations (cf. Art. 2.3 NADC21) and is punished in the same way as the use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method. In the event of a one-off refusal, a four-year suspension is provided, unless the athlete can prove that the anti-doping rule violation was not intentionally committed. Further information can be found in the NADC.


The WADA prohibited list is revised once a year and contains the active ingredients and methods that are prohibited inside and outside of the competition. The list can be viewed here. The online drug database NADAmed is intended to enable athletes and carers to obtain easily accessible and quick information about the doping relevance of drugs. NADA also publishes an example list of permitted drugs that can also be ordered as a printed copy: using the online order form


The use of prohibited substances is prohibited under the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) and the National Anti-Doping Code (NADC). In the event of illness, an athlete can be granted a medical exemption for the permitted use of prohibited substances or prohibited methods if she / he / she submits the relevant application to NADA or, if responsible, to the relevant International Sports Federation. The Medical Exemption Committee will review the application for a Medical Exemption. This is set up in Germany exclusively by NADA. In such cases, athletes should contact the Medicine Department (medizin [at] nada.de) or call 0228-81292-0. Further information on the TUE procedure can be found on our homepage under the heading Medicine.


WADA's statistics on proven doping cases worldwide show that anabolic steroids are the most widely used doping substances, ahead of stimulants, beta-2 agonists and - for several years - cannabinoids. NADA lists information on positive cases with mention of the substance / anti-doping rule violation in Germany in its annual reports.

So-called blood doping is one of the forbidden methods in which blood or blood components are manipulated. The nature of the blood can be changed through transfusions of one's own or someone else's blood in such a way that the oxygen transport is improved and thus the performance is increased. Blood doping harbors various dangers, including allergic reactions or viral infections.


Since there are different aspirin preparations, a distinction must be made here. The following applies to preparations containing pseudoephedrine: The active ingredient pseudoephedrine may only be detected in a competition doping control below a limit value of 150 µg / ml urine. The WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) recommends discontinuing preparations containing pseudoephedrine 24 hours before a competition. You can use our drug database NADAmed and the sample list of permitted drugs at any time to obtain more information on permitted and prohibited substances. NADAmed is also integrated in the free NADA app and can therefore be looked up while on the go.


The abbreviation ADAMS stands for "Anti-Doping Administration and Management System"and is made available to all anti-doping organizations by WADA. It consists of several modules, for example for the whereabouts information of the athletes, for the commissioning of controls, for result management, etc. ADAMS can be used for control planning responsible employees of the anti-doping organizations retrieve information about the whereabouts of athletes in order to be able to carry out unannounced controls. ADAMS makes it easier for athletes to indicate their whereabouts in good time: they can enter and update their data on the Internet at any time, without phone calls and correspondence. In an emergency, ADAMS also enables a short-term notification by SMS Registered Testing Pool (RTP) or NADA's National Test Pool (NTP) receive personal access to ADAMS with user information. Further information can be found in the doping control system.


All information on "regular activities" must be sufficiently described to ensure that they can be reached. In the comment field in ADAMS, the athletes have the opportunity to point out tests and other special events. ATP athletes can make a note of this on the athlete registration form, as they do not provide the information on availability via ADAMS. The details of the Whereabouts are regulated in the standard for results management / disciplinary procedures (Annex B: reporting requirements).


NADA carries out around 8,000 unannounced doping tests every year, which makes more than twenty tests a day on average. It is obvious that this requires an immense organizational effort, after all, there is not an unlimited number of control personnel available. In order to be able to cope with this daunting task and to be able to plan the controls, NADA must have access to the athletes' whereabouts in good time.

Therefore, RTP and NTP athletes must submit so-called quarterly reports via ADAMS, and ATP athletes must fill out the athlete registration form and send it to NADA. ATP athletes do not have to enter their details in ADAMS.

At the time of the quarterly report, RTP and NTP athletes should already save all known regular activities in their ADAMS profile. Regular activities such as training, school, university lectures or work must be entered in the quarterly report. Regular activities can, for example, be created in advance by a location descriptor and added all at once in the ADAMS profile, so that in this regard - since this is a repetitive activity - you save work when entering it. The entries can and must be updated at any time and also after the quarterly report. In the event of illness, the regular activities should be deleted from the profile for the duration of the illness. In order to facilitate the entry in ADAMS, NADA has created videos that explain the individual steps. You can find these in the media library. Further information on reporting obligations can be found in the standard for results management / disciplinary procedures (Annex B: reporting obligations).

Members of the Registered Testing Pool (RTP) or the National Test Pool (NTP) enter an address for each day in the ADAMS reporting system at which they are located. RTP athletes must also specify an hour for each day at which they can be found and checked at the specified location. Those who belong to the General Test Pool (ATP) are not affected by these regulations. If athletes have problems with the entry in ADAMS or with the specification of an hour, they should contact NADA before their vacation. In addition, athletes should enter information and problems relating to accessibility while on vacation in the comments field in their own ADAMS profile.Further information on the reporting obligation can be found in the standard for results management / disciplinary procedures (Annex B: reporting obligations). NADA has created videos for this purpose, which can be viewed in the media library, on how whereabouts are entered in ADAMS.


The test hour (to be specified only for RTP athletes) can be postponed to a later point in time until immediately before the start. However, it is not permitted if the lesson is set to a point in time that has already passed or if the athlete is already within the test time window. In an emergency, the athlete can unsubscribe via SMS. Within the one-hour test window, RTP athletes must ensure that they can be found at the location specified in ADAMS and that they are available for doping controls for the entire time. If necessary, special events or activities (such as examinations after the test lesson) should be stored in the comments field. Further information on the reporting requirements can be found in the standard for results management / disciplinary procedures (Annex B: reporting requirements).


In an emergency, athletes who store their whereabouts entries in ADAMS can also unsubscribe via SMS. How this works is explained in a leaflet that is available on the NADA homepage under ADAMS.


The contact person in the event of illness should always be a doctor first. In training camps and on competition trips, this would be the responsible doctor at the OSP or the team doctor. The doctors treating you should be informed about the current doping regulations. When visiting your family doctor, you should be advised that you are a competitive athlete and that you are subject to the doping control system. The sample list of approved drugs provides an overview of approved drugs. In NADA's drug database NADAmed, drugs can be checked for prohibited substances. Athletes can also contact NADA directly at any time if they are unsure whether the prescribed drug is allowed. Athletes should also note that many drugs abroad have the same name as German drugs, but the active ingredients are often different. In some countries (e.g. France) drugs with doping relevance are labeled accordingly. If the attending physician, the doctor at the event or the pharmacist in the country of travel are unable to provide the relevant information, another medication must be used. In some countries (e.g. common database USA, Canada, UK or Austria or Switzerland) the anti-doping organizations there also offer corresponding queries on the Internet.


Before taking a drug, it should always be looked up in the NADAmed drug database of NADA. The database is also integrated in the NADA app and can also be used offline there:

Apple App Store https://apps.apple.com/de/app/nada-app/id532478926

Google Play Store https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.kultwerk.nadaapp&hl=de&gl=US

The drug database NADAmed contains around 3,500 drugs that are frequently requested from NADA.

In addition, an inquiry about the prescribed medication can be directed to NADA by telephone, fax or email. You can find the contact details of the employees in the Medicine Department here.

If the drug contains substances that are on the prohibited list, the doctor should first be consulted as to whether there are alternatives to the preparation. If this is not the case, it is imperative that athletes apply for a Medical Exemption (TUE) for the drug and wait for approval before taking it. Subsequent approval is usually only possible if there is a medical emergency and treatment must be started immediately. Athletes should also note that many drugs abroad have the same name as German drugs, but the active ingredients are often different. In some countries (e.g. France) drugs with doping relevance are labeled accordingly. If the attending physician, the doctor at the event or the pharmacist in the country of travel are unable to provide the relevant information, another medication must be used. In some countries (e.g. common database USA, Canada, UK or Austria or Switzerland) the anti-doping organizations there also offer corresponding queries on the Internet.

If you have forgotten the password for ADAMS, you can use the Log in- Request a new password from ADAMS using the "Forgot password" function. The system then automatically generates a new temporary password and sends it to the email address stored in the ADAMS system. If an athlete does not receive a new temporary password, they should contact NADA directly.


In such a case, an athlete can request an analysis of the B-sample and / or explain in writing why he or she considers the doping allegation to be unfounded within the specified time after notification. In any case, he or she must provide evidence that he or she did not dop. Further information can be found on our website and in the NADC.


When traveling abroad, athletes may come into contact with various pathogens that hit the stomach. Especially in Asia, South America and Africa, drinking water is often contaminated with germs. It is therefore advisable to only consume cooked food there, to only consume drinking water from filled bottles (also for brushing your teeth) and to order drinks without ice cubes. The team doctor usually has details on this. In addition, the Manfred Donike Institute and the Center for Preventive Doping Research of the German Sport University Cologne warned of the increased risk of unintentional doping through the inclusion of the banned ß2 agonist Clenbuterol in contaminated food in China and Mexico.

In principle, every athlete is responsible for ensuring that he or she does not add any substances to his or her body that could test positive. That is why NADA advises you to be particularly vigilant when it comes to diet when traveling to Mexico and China. As far as possible, the consumption of meat products should be avoided. Proposals for specific alternatives for covering the protein requirement with other, safe protein sources can be requested from the nutritionists of the Olympic training centers or associations. Athletes should also note that many drugs abroad have the same name as German drugs, but the active ingredients are often different. In some countries (e.g. France) drugs with doping relevance are labeled accordingly. If the attending physician, the physician at the event or the pharmacist in the country of travel are unable to provide relevant information, a different medication must be used. In some countries (e.g. common database USA, Canada, UK or Austria or Switzerland) the anti-doping organizations there also offer corresponding queries on the Internet.

Team athletes are reported to NADA by the associations every 12 months and included in a test pool. For this reason, an athlete is usually in a NADA test pool for at least 12 months, or longer if the association registers again, unless he or she ends his or her career. If the athlete ends his active career during the 12 months, he or she must report this in writing to his or her national sports association, the associated international association and NADA. The corresponding withdrawal form can be found on the NADA homepage under Downloads.

Athletes who have been banned due to a violation of anti-doping regulations remain in their respective test pool during the ban and are still subject to the reporting obligations provided for this. An athlete cannot be downgraded or removed from the testing pool during the testing pool year unless the athletic career is terminated as described above.

After the check has been completed, the completed form on the tablet PC is deleted and can no longer be called up. The data is temporarily stored on the tablet PC until it is transmitted to the server, but can no longer be accessed by the inspector. If there is an internet connection, the data is transmitted immediately and is no longer available on the tablet PC.

The electronic documentation of the doping control and the electronic signature meet the same formal legal requirements as those of the paper form.