What are surrounding nucleophiles and substrates

Digestion and substrate intake

Biochemistry pp 121-162 | Cite as

  • Kurt Jungermann
  • Hanns Möhler


Nutritional value and nutritional needs
  • Foods like milk, bread, potatoes, meat or eggs are complex complexes of nutrients. These represent chemical compounds that can be divided into 3 classes from a functional point of view: Energy substrates are required for energy supply; These include the carbohydrates starch, glycogen, sucrose and lactose, triglyceride fats and proteins. Energy substrates can be exchanged for one another within wide limits according to their energy content (calorific value). Construction substrates are constantly used for biosynthetic purposes due to the dynamic state of all cell components. Most of these chemically very heterogeneous compounds can be synthesized by the organism itself; on the other hand, some are essential nutritional factors and must therefore be taken in with the diet; this includes 8 essential amino acids and some polyunsaturated essential fatty acids as well as all the minerals required for construction work. Active substrates are constantly required for catalytic tasks; this is where the vitamins, most of the minerals and trace elements and the water are classified.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Jungermann
  • Hanns Möhler
  1. 1. Physiological-Chemical Institute of the University of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2. Department of Experimental Medicine Hoffmann-La RocheBaselSwitzerland