Why did you start reading the Gita?
Original 1st edition 1974 - by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda
- Bhagavad-gītā - As She Is -
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The fills of the absolute
Verses: 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः।
यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥१॥
śrī bhagavān uvāca
bhūya eva mahā-bāho
śṛṇu me paramaṁ vacaḥ
yat te 'haṁ prīyamāṇāya
śrī bhagavān uvāca - the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; bhūyaḥ - again; eva - certainly; mahā-bāho - O strong-armed; śṛṇu - just listen; me - mine; paramaṁ - sublime; vacaḥ - information; yat - that what; te - to you; aham - I; prīyamāṇāya - because you are very dear to Me; vakṣyāmi - say; hita-kāmyayā - for your good.
The Supreme Lord said: My dear friend, O strong-armed Arjuna, now hear again My sublime words, which I proclaim to you for your good and which will give you great joy.
The word paramam is explained by Parāśara Muni as follows: he who has six faculties, that is, who has all strength, all fame, all wealth, all knowledge, all beauty and all renunciation is paramam (the Supreme Personality of Godhead). When Kṛṣṇa was present on earth, He unfolded all six faculties. Therefore, all great sages like Parāśara Muni accept Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
In this chapter, Krsna teaches His friend Arjuna more intimate knowledge, namely, knowledge of His abundances and activities. From the seventh chapter onwards, the Lord has explained His various energies and their modes of operation in detail, so that devotion could develop in firm conviction. Now in this chapter, He reveals to Arjuna His various energies and multiple fillings.
The more one hears about the Supreme God, the more one becomes steadfast in devotional service. Hence one should hear about the Lord constantly in the community of devotees; this will encourage one's devotional service. Conversations in the community of devotees can only take place among those who sincerely long to become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Others cannot participate in such conversations. The Lord explains to Arjuna that He proclaims His Word to him because he is His dear friend.
न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः।
अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणाञ्च सर्वशः ॥२॥
na me viduḥ sura-gaṇāḥ
prabhavaṁ na maharṣayaḥ
aham ādir hi devānāṁ
maharṣīṇāṁ ca sarvaśaḥ
n / A - No way; me - me; viduḥ - know; sura-gaṇāḥ - demigods; prabhavam - riches; n / A - No way; maharṣayaḥ - great way; aham - I am; ādiḥ - the origin; Hi - certainly; devānām - the demigods; maharṣīṇām - the great sages; approx - also; sarvaśaḥ - in every sense.
Neither the multitudes of demigods nor the great sages know my origin, for I am the origin of demigods and wise men.
According to the statement of the Brahma-saṁhitā Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Lord. Nobody is greater than Him; He is the cause of all causes. Here the Lord himself confirms that He is the origin of all demigods and wise men. Even demigods and great sages cannot understand Kṛṣṇa; not to mention the so-called scholars of this tiny planet. No one can understand why the Supreme God comes to earth as an ordinary human being and engages in such ordinary yet wonderful activities. One should know, therefore, that education is not a necessary qualification in order to understand Ka. Even the demigods and great sages have tried to understand Kṛṣṇa through mental speculation and have been lacking in it. Also in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam it is clearly stated that even the great demigods are unable to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They can speculate to the limits of their imperfect senses and conclude that Absolute Truth is impersonal, or something not manifested by the three modes of material nature, or they can imagine something else in their speculation; but it is not possible for them to understand Kṛṣṇa with the help of such foolish speculations.
Here the Lord indirectly proclaims to everyone who wants to know the Absolute Truth: “See, here I am, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I am the Most High. "This should be recognized. Although one cannot understand the incomprehensible Lord who is personally present, He still exists. We can understand Kṛṣṇa, who is eternal, full of bliss and knowledge, if we simply understand His Words in the Bhagavad-gītā and in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam to study. The impersonal Brahman can be understood even by people under the influence of the lower energy of the Lord, but the Personality of Godhead cannot be understood unless one is on the transcendental plane.
Because most people cannot understand Kṛṣṇa for what He really is, He descends from His baseless mercy to show favor to such speculators. Yet despite the unusual activities of the Lord, these speculators still think that the impersonal Brahman is supreme because of their pollution by material energy. Only devotees who are fully surrendered to the Supreme Lord can understand, by the grace of the Supreme Personality, that He is Krsna. The devotees do not care about the impersonal Brahman aspect of God; their faith and devotion make them immediately surrender to the Supreme Lord, and from Kṛṣṇa's unfounded mercy they can understand Him. Nobody else can understand Him. Hence, when asked, "What is ātmā, what is the highest?", The great sages unanimously declare, "It is he whom we must worship."
यो मामजमनादिञ्च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम्।
असंमूढः स मर्त्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥३॥
yo mām ajam anādiṁ ca
asammūḍhaḥ sa martyeṣu
Yah - everyone; mām - me; ajam - unborn; anādim - without a beginning; approx - also; vetti - knows; loka - the planets; maheśvaram - supreme master; asaṁmūḍhaḥ - without doubt; saw - he; martyeṣu - among those who are subject to death; sarva-pāpaiḥ - of all sinful reactions; pramucyate - is exempt.
Who knows me as the unborn, the beginningless and the highest lord of all worlds, is free from deception and free from all sins.
As explained in the Seventh Chapter, those who try to rise to the level of spiritual realization are not ordinary people. They are on a higher level than the millions and millions of ordinary people who are ignorant of spiritual realization. But of those who actually try to understand their spiritual identity, the most advanced who can come to realize that Ka is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the possessor of all that is and the unborn. Only at this stage, at which one fully understands Kṛṣṇa's highest position, can one be completely free from all sinful reactions.
The word ajam (unborn) should not be referred to the living beings identified in Chapter Two as ajam to be discribed. The Lord is different from living beings who are born and die because of their attachment to matter. The conditioned souls change their bodies, but His body is immutable. Even when He appears in the material world, He comes as the same unborn; therefore it is said in the fourth chapter that the Lord, through His inner energy, is not subject to the control of the lower, material energy, but is always in the higher energy.
He existed before creation and He is different from His creation. All demigods in the material world were created, but as for Kṛṣṇa, it is said that He was not created; therefore Kṛṣṇa differs even from the great demigods like Brahmā and Śiva. And because He is the Creator of Brahmā, Śivas and all other demigods, He is the Supreme Person in all of creation.
Śrī Kṛṣṇa is therefore different from all created things, and anyone who understands Him in this way will be instantly freed from all sinful reactions. One must be free from all sinful activities in order to be anchored in the knowledge of the Supreme Lord. Like in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that He can be understood by devotional service alone and by no other means.
One should not try to mistake Këa for a human being. As explained earlier, only deluded people think He is an ordinary person. The same is expressed here again in a different form. A person who is not stupid but intelligent enough to understand the intrinsic position of God is always free from all sinful reactions.
One may now wonder how Kṛṣṇa can be unborn when He is known as the son of Devakī. This is also done in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam explains: when He appeared to Devakī and Vasudeva, He was not born like an ordinary child, but appeared in His original form and later changed in appearance to an ordinary child.
Everything that is done under the guidance of Kṛṣṇa is transcendental. Such action cannot be tainted by material reactions, whether favorable or unfavorable. The idea that there are favorable and unfavorable things in the material world is more or less a pipe dream, for there is nothing favorable in the material world. Basically everything here is unhappy, because the entire material mask is unhappy. Only in our imagination do we consider them auspicious. Real happiness depends on activities in Kṛṣṇa consciousness carried out with total surrender as service. Therefore, if we want our activities to be auspicious, we should act on the instructions of the Supreme Lord. Such instructions are given in authoritative scriptures such as the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and the Bhagavad-gītā or given by a real spiritual master. Because the spiritual master is the direct representative of the Supreme Lord, his teaching is the direct instruction of the Lord. The spiritual master, the saints, and the scriptures give the same instructions. There is no contradiction between these three sources. All actions carried out under such guidance are free from reactions to pious or ungodly activities in the material world. The transcendental behavior of the devotees in carrying out their activities is real renunciation (sannyāsa.) Everyone who acts under the guidance of the Supreme Lord is basically a sannyāsī and yogi - and not the one who is merely the robe of a sannyāsīs or pseudo-yogīs attracts.
बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः।
सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयमेव च ॥४॥
अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशोऽयशः।
भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥५॥
buddhir jñānam asaṁmohaḥ
kṣamā satyaṁ damaḥ śamaḥ
sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ bhavo 'bhāvo
bhayaṁ cābhayam eva ca
ahiṁsā samatā tuṣṭis
tapo dānaṁ yaśo 'yaśaḥ
bhavanti bhāvā bhūtānāṁ
matta eva pṛthag-vidhāḥ
buddhiḥ - intelligence; jñānam - Knowledge; asam-mohaḥ - freedom from doubt; kṣamā - forbearance; satyam - Truthfulness; damaḥ - control of the senses; śamaḥ - control of the mind; sukham - Luck; duḥkham - Suffering; bhavaḥ - birth; abhāvaḥ - Death; bhayam - fear; approx - also; abhayam - without fear; eva - also; approx - and; ahiṁsā - non-violence; samatā - balance; tuṣṭiḥ - satisfaction; tapaḥ - Buses; dānam - charity; yaśaḥ - Fame; ayaśaḥ - shame; bhavanti - become; bhāvāḥ - natures; bhūtānām - of living beings; mattaḥ - from me; eva - certainly; pṛthak-vidhāḥ - arranged differently.
Intelligence, knowledge, freedom from doubt and deception, forbearance, truthfulness, self-control and calm, joy and pain, birth, death, fear, fearlessness, non-violence, balance, contentment, repentance, benevolence, fame and shame are created by Me alone.
The various qualities of living beings - good or bad - are all created by Kṛṣṇa and are described here. Buddhiḥ (Intelligence) refers to the ability to examine things from the right perspective, and jñānam (Knowledge) means understanding what is spiritual nature and what is matter. Ordinary knowledge acquired through university studies relates only to matter and is not accepted as knowledge here. To know is to know the difference between spiritual nature and matter. In modern education there is no knowledge of spiritual nature - today's people care only about the material elements and the needs of the body. Therefore academic knowledge is not complete.
Asaṁmohaḥ (Freedom from doubt and deception) can be achieved if one does not hesitate and if one understands the transcendental philosophy. In this way one gradually becomes free from confusion. Nothing should be accepted blindly, everything should be examined with care and caution.
One should kṣamā Exercise (forbearance) and overlook the minor offenses of others.
Satyam (Truthfulness) means presenting facts as they are so that others can benefit from them. Facts should not be misrepresented. According to social conventions, one should only tell the truth when it is comfortable for others, but that is not truthfulness. The truth should be told bluntly and straightforward so that others can understand how things really are. If a man is a thief and people are warned about him, that is truth. Although the truth may be uncomfortable at times, one should not be afraid to share it. Truthfulness requires presenting the truth as it is for the benefit of others. That is the definition of truthfulness.
Damaḥ (Self-control) means not using the senses for unnecessary, personal enjoyment. It is not forbidden to satisfy the real needs of the senses, but because unnecessary sensory enjoyment prevents spiritual progress, one should withhold the senses from unnecessary use.
Similarly, the mind should not indulge in unnecessary thoughts; that will śamaḥ Called (rest). Nor should one waste one's time pondering over earned money - this would be an abuse of the power of thought. The mind should be used to understand the first human need, and that knowledge should be presented on an authority basis. The ability to think should be developed in the company of people who are authorities in the scriptures, that is, in the company of saints, spiritual masters, and those whose thinking is highly developed.
One should only find joy in those things that are conducive to the development of spiritual knowledge in Kṛṣṇa consciousness; this will sukham Called (joy or happiness). What is painful or causes suffering is detrimental to the development of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Anything that is conducive to the development of Ka consciousness should be accepted, but anything unfavorable should be rejected.
Bhava (Birth) refers to the body. As for the soul, there is no birth or death for it; this was already at the beginning of the Bhagavad-gītā explained. Birth and death therefore relate to embodiment in the material world.
Bhayam (Fear) is caused by worrying about the future. A person in Ka consciousness knows no fear because it is certain that through his activities he will go back to the spiritual world, back home, back to God. That is why his future can only bring him good things. However, others do not know what to expect in the next life and so they are in constant worry. If we want to become free from fear, we have to understand Kṛṣṇa and always be anchored in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. In this way we become free from all fears. in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam explains that fear is caused by our being immersed in the illusory energy; but those who are freed from the illusory energy need not fear anything, for they know very well that they are not the material body, but spiritual parts of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore they are engaged in the transcendental service of the Supreme. Their future is very bright. Only people who are not Kṛṣṇa conscious are afraid.
Abhayam (Fearlessness) is only possible for someone who is in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Ahiṁsā (Nonviolence) means not doing anything that could cause distress or confusion to others. The plans that many politicians, sociologists, philanthropists, etc. develop for the good of the people do not achieve very good results because such people do not have a transcendental view. They do not know what is really useful to human society. Ahiṁsā means training people so that they can take full advantage of the possibilities offered by the human form of life. The human body is destined for spiritual realization, and therefore any movement and commission that does not have this goal in mind does violence to the human body. That which promotes people's future spiritual happiness is called non-violence.
Samatā (Balance) refers to freedom from attachment and aversion. It is not very beneficial to be too attached to or repelled by something. The material world should be accepted without attachment and aversion. Similarly, that which is beneficial for the practice of Kṛṣṇa consciousness should be accepted, while that which is unfavorable should be rejected. That will samatāCalled, balance. A person in Kṛṣṇa consciousness refuses and accepts nothing unless it is useful for the practice of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
Tuṣṭiḥ (Contentment) means not striving to accumulate material goods through unnecessary activities. One should be content with what one receives by the grace of the Supreme Lord: this is called contentment.
tapas means renunciation or repentance. There are many rules and definitions in the Vedasthat relate to this, such as getting up early in the morning and taking a bath. Sometimes it is very difficult to get up early in the morning; such voluntary trouble is called repentance. There are also rules for fasting on certain days of the month. One may not like to fast, but because one is determined to make progress in the science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness one should endure such physical inconveniences as are recommended. However, one should not fast for a political purpose - it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā called fasting in ignorance - and anything done in passion or ignorance does not result in spiritual advancement. However, in all that is done in the mode of purity one progresses, and fasting performed according to the Vedic instructions enriches the fasting person with more spiritual knowledge.
What dānam As for (charity), donate fifty percent of your income to a good cause. And what is a good cause? That which is carried out in the sense of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. This is not only a good purpose, but the best purpose, for because Këa is good, everything that is done for Him is good too. Hence, donations should be given to a person who is active in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. The Vedic scriptures teach the brāhmaṇas To give donations, and this instruction is actually still being followed, if not very conscientiously and not exactly as intended Vedas. But still the instruction is den brāhmaṇas To render charities. Why? Because they are busy developing spiritual knowledge. Of a brāhmaṇa he is expected to devote his entire life to the knowledge of Brahman. A person who knows the Brahman is a brahma-jana; he will brāhmaṇa called. The brāhmaṇas Donations are given because their continued occupation in higher spiritual service does not give them time to earn a living. According to the Vedic scriptures, those who live in renunciation, the sannyāsī, Charities proven. The sannyāsīs go from house to house, begging - not because of the money, but for the sake of missionary goals. They go door to door to awaken the housekeepers from the slumber of ignorance. Because the housekeepers are too busy with family affairs and have forgotten the real goal of life - to awaken their Kṛṣṇa consciousness - it is their job sannyāsīsto go to the housekeepers as beggars and encourage them to be Kṛṣṇa conscious. In the Vedas it is said to wake up in order to attain the goal of the human form of life. This realization, and the method of realizing it, is supported by the sannyāsīs widespread; consequently the one living in renunciation, the brāhmaṇas and donations are given for similarly good causes - and not for any whimsical purpose.
Yaśaḥ According to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, only one person who is known as a great devotee possesses (fame). This is real fame. Whoever has become a great person in Kṛṣṇa consciousness is truly famous. Who does not have such fame is unknown.
All over the universe the properties listed in this verse are manifest; they are found both in human society and in the society of demigods. There are many other ways of life on other planets, and these characteristics appear there too. For a person who wants to advance in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, Kṛṣṇa creates all of these qualities; but everyone has to develop it from within, from within. A person engaged in devotional service develops all good qualities with the help of the Supreme Lord.
And of all that we find - be it good or bad - Kṛṣṇa is the source. Nothing can be manifested in the material world that does not exist in Kṛṣṇa. This is real knowledge; although we know that there are many different things, we should still realize that it all emanates from Kṛṣṇa.
महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा।
मद्भावा मानसाजाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः ॥६॥
maharṣayaḥ sapta pūrve
catvāro manavas tathā
mad-bhāvā mānasā jātā
yeṣāṁ loka imāḥ prajāḥ
maharṣayaḥ - the great sages; sapta - seven; pūrve - in front; catvāraḥ - four; manavaḥ - manus; tathā - also; mat-bhāvāḥ - born of Me; mānasāḥ - from the mind; jātāḥ - born; yeṣām - of them; loke - the planets; imāḥ - all these; prajāḥ - population.
The seven great sages, before them the other four great sages and the Manus [the forefathers of mankind] are born of My Spirit, and all creatures on all planets are descended from them.
Here the Lord gives a tribal overview of the population of the universe. Brahmā, the primordial creature, was born from the energy of the Supreme Lord known as Hiraṇyagarbha. And from Brahmā the seven great sages were manifested, and before them the four other great sages named Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana and Sanatkumāra and the Manus. These twenty-five great sages are known throughout the universe as the forefathers of living things. There are innumerable universes and innumerable planets float in each universe, and each planet is populated by different living beings. All living things in the universe were born from these twenty-five forefathers. According to the demigods' reckoning, Brahmā took penance for a thousand years before he, by the grace of Kṛṣṇa, knew how to create a thing. Then came from Brahmā Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana and Sanatkumāra, then Rudra and then the seven wise men. That way everyone became brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas created from the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Brahmā is as pitāmaha, as grandfather, and Kṛṣṇa is as prapitāmaha known as the grandfather's father. This is explained in the eleventh chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā (Bg. 11.39) confirmed.
एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः।
सोऽविकल्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः ॥७॥
etāṁ vibhūtiṁ yogaṁ ca
mama yo vetti tattvataḥ
so 'vikalpena yogena
yujyate nātra saṁśayaḥ
etām - all this; vibhūtiṁ - wealth; yogam approx - also mystical powers; mummy - from me; Yah - everyone; vetti - knows; tattvataḥ - indeed; saw - he; avikalpena - without separation; yogena - in devotional service; yujyate - employed; n / A - No way; atra - here; saṁśayaḥ - doubt.
Whoever knows this My glory and power in truth is engaged in pure devotional service; there is no doubt about that.
The culmination of spiritual perfection lies in the knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Unless one is firmly convinced of the various faculties of the Supreme Lord, one cannot engage in devotional service. In general, people know that God is great, but they do not know exactly how great He is. Here now the details are explained. When one truly realizes how great God is, one becomes a devoted soul of his own accord and engages in devotional service to the Lord. When one actually knows the fulnesses of the Supreme, there is no alternative but to surrender to Him. This knowledge can be obtained from the descriptions provided in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, in the Bhagavad-gītā and can be found in similar writings.
Many demigods are responsible for the administration of the universe, which are distributed all over the universe; Brahmā, Śiva, the four Kumāras and the other forefathers are their chiefs. The population of the universe has many forefathers, and all of them were born of the Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is the original ancestor of all forefathers.
These are some of the fulnesses of the Supreme Lord.When one is fully convinced of them, one accepts Kṛṣṇa with great confidence and without doubt and engages in devotional service. This particular knowledge is necessary in order to increase a person's interest in devotional service. One should not fail to understand in every way how great Kṛṣṇa is; for only when one actually realizes the greatness of Kṛṣṇa will one be able to be anchored in serious devotional service.
अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्त्तते।
इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसमन्विताः ॥८॥
ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo
mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṁ
aham - I; sarvasya - of all; prabhavaḥ - source of creation; mattaḥ - from me; sarvam - everything; pravartate - comes from; iti - Consequently; matvā - knowing; bhajante - is given; mām - to me; budhāḥ - taught; bhāva-samanvitāḥ - with great attention.
I am the origin of the spiritual and the material world. Everything emanates from me. The wise, who know this, serve Me with devotion and worship Me with all their hearts.
A great scholar who the Vedas who has studied to perfection and has been instructed by such authorities as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya and knows how to apply these teachings can understand that Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the origin of all that exists in both the material and the spiritual world. And because he has fully realized this, he becomes firmly anchored in the devotional service of the Supreme Lord. He can never be diverted from this path, no matter how great a number of nonsensical comments or fools.
All Vedic scriptures agree that Kṛṣṇa is the origin of Brahmā, Śiva and all other demigods.
in the Atharva-veda is said:
yo brahmāṇaṁ vidadhāti: pūrvaṁ yo vai vedāṁś ca gāpayati sma kṛṣṇaḥ.
"It was Kṛṣṇa who instructed Brahmā in Vedic knowledge in the beginning and proclaimed Vedic knowledge in the past."
And it is also said:
atha puruṣo ha vai nārāyaṇo 'kāmayata prajāḥ sṛjeya ity upakramya.
"Thereupon the Supreme Personality, Nārāyaṇa, wished to create living beings."
Then again it says:
nārāyaṇād brahmā jāyate
nārāyaṇād prajāpatiḥ prajāyate
nārāyaṇād indro jāyate
nārāyaṇād aṣṭau vasavo jāyante
nārāyaṇād ekādaśa rudrā jāyante
“From Nārāyaṇa Brahmā was born, and from Nārāyaṇa also the forefathers were born. Of Nārāyaṇa Indra was born; of Nārāyaṇa the eight Vasus were born; from Nārāyaṇa the eleven rudras were born, and from Nārāyaṇa the twelve Ādityas were born. "
In the same Vedas it is also said:
"The son of Devakī, Kṛṣṇa, is the Supreme Personality."
In another place it says:
eko vai nārāyaṇa āsīn na brahmā na īśāno nāpo nāgni samau neme
dyāv-āpṛthivī na nakṣatrāṇi na sūryaḥ sa ekākī na ramate tasya
dhyānāntaḥ sthasya yatra chāndogaiḥ kriyamāṇāṣṭakādi-saṁjñakā
stuti-stomaḥ stomam ucyate.
“At the beginning of creation only the Supreme Personality Nārāyaṇa existed. There was no Brahmā, no Śiva, no fire, no moon, no stars in the sky and no sun. There was only Kṛṣṇa who creates everything and enjoys everything. "
In the many Purāṇas it is said that Śiva was born from the Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and the Vedas say that one must worship the Supreme Lord, the Creator of Brahmās and Śivas. Kṛṣṇa also says im Mokṣa-dharma:
prajāpatiṁ ca rudraṁ cāpy aham eva sṛjāmi
vai tau hi māṁ na vijānīto mama māyā-vimohitau.
"The forefathers, Śiva and others were created by Me, although they do not know this because they are deceived by My illusionary energy."
in the Varāha Purāṇa it is also said:
nārāyaṇaḥ paro devas tasmāj jātaś caturmukhaḥ
asmād rudro 'bhavad devaḥ sa ca sarvajñatāṁ gataḥ.
"Nārāyaṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and from Him Brahmā and Śiva were born."
Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the origin of all generations, and He is called the operative cause of all that exists. He says, “because everything was born of Me, I am the original source of all being. Everything is subordinate to Me, no one is above Me. "There is no supreme controller except Kṛṣṇa. Whoever understands Kṛṣṇa in this way from a true spiritual master and from the Vedic scriptures and engages all of his energy in Ka consciousness becomes one real learned people. All others who do not know Kṛṣṇa are nothing but fools. Only a fool would consider Kṛṣṇa to be an ordinary person. A Kṛṣṇa conscious person should not be confused by fools, he should make all unauthorized comments and interpretations Bhagavad-gītā avoid and move forward with determination and firmness in K unda consciousness.
मच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम्।
कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥९॥
kathayantaś ca māṁ nityaṁ
tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca
mat-cittāḥ - the spirit completely immersed in me; mat-gata-prāṇāḥ - the life dedicated to My Service; bodhayantaḥ - preaching; parasparam - among themselves; kathayantaḥ approx - also speaking; mām - about me; nityam - incessantly; tuṣyanti - are delighted; approx - also; ramanti - enjoy transcendental bliss; approx - also.
The thoughts of my pure devotees dwell in me, their life is given to me, and they experience great satisfaction and happiness when they talk about me and thus enlighten one another.
Pure devotees, the characteristics of which are mentioned here, are fully engaged in the transcendental loving service of the Lord. Their thoughts can never be distracted from the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and their conversations are exclusively on transcendental subjects. The characteristics of the pure devotee are specifically listed in this verse. The devotees of the Supreme Lord are busy twenty-four hours a day extolling His divine games. Their hearts and souls are continually immersed in Him and they experience great joy in speaking about Him with other devotees.
In the early stages of devotional service, devotees experience transcendental joy from service itself, while at the mature stage they are anchored in pure love for God. Once on this plane, they can attain the ultimate perfection that is displayed by the Lord in His kingdom. Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya compares transcendental devotional service to sowing a seed in the heart of the living being. There are innumerable living beings traveling from planet to planet throughout the universe, and there are only a few who are very fortunate to meet a pure devotee and thus have the opportunity to understand devotional service. This devotional service is just like a seed, and when it is sown in the heart of a living being and that being continually hears and chants Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare / Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, matures this seed like the seed of a tree that is regularly watered. The spiritual plant of devotional service grows until it penetrates the covering of the material universe and into the brahmajyoti- Radiation in the spiritual heaven. Even in the spiritual sky, the plant continues to grow until it finally reaches the highest planet, Goloka Vṛndāvana, the planet Kṛṣṇas. There the plant seeks refuge under the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa and comes to rest. As a plant gradually produces fruit and flowers, so does the devotional plant produce fruit if watering continues in the form of chanting and hearing. This plant of devotional service is discussed at length in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta explained. It is said there that when the plant takes refuge in the lotus feet of the Lord, one becomes completely in love with God; at this stage one cannot even live for a single moment without being associated with the Supreme Lord - just as a fish cannot live without water. When the devotee is at this stage, he actually assumes transcendental qualities in association with the Supreme Lord.
That too Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is filled with tales of the relationship of the Supreme Lord to His devotees; that's why this is Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam very dear to the devotee. There is no material activity, sense gratification, or liberation to be found in these narratives. The Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the only narrative that fully describes the transcendental nature of the Lord and His devotees. Therefore, the realized souls in Kṛṣṇa consciousness also experience constant joy when they hear from such transcendental scriptures - just as a boy and a girl are happy when they come together.
तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्वकम्।
ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते ॥१०॥
dadāmi buddhi-yogaṁ taṁ
yena mām upayānti te
teṣām - them; satata-yuktānām - always busy; bhajatām - in devotional service; prīti-pūrvakam - in loving ecstasy; dadāmi - I give; buddhi-yogam - real intelligence; tam - the; yena - by what; mām - to me; upayānti - come; te - you.
To those who are continuously given to me and worship me with love, I give the intelligence through which they can come to me.
In this verse is the word buddhi-yogam very significant. We may remember when the Lord said to Arjuna in Chapter Two that He had shared so many things with him and will now in the buddhi-yoga instruct. Here is now buddhi-yoga explained. Buddhi yoga means action in Kṛṣṇa consciousness: that is the highest intelligence. Buddhi means intelligence, and yoga means mystical activity or mystical elevation. When one tries to go back home, back to God, and fully dedicate himself to devotional service in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, his activities become buddhi-yoga called. In other words, buddhi-yoga is the process by which one can free oneself from entanglement in the material world. Kṛṣṇa is the ultimate goal of all progress, but most people do not know this; this is why fellowship with devotees and a true spiritual master is so important. One should know that Kṛṣṇa is the goal, and once the goal is established, one can slowly but successfully walk the path and will surely reach the ultimate goal.
When a person knows the goal of life but desires the fruits of activities, he acts in the karma yoga. If he knows that Kṛṣṇa is the goal, but still takes pleasure in mental speculations with the help of which he tries to understand Kṛṣṇa, then he is acting in the jñāna-yoga. And when a person knows the goal of life and seeks Kṛṣṇa in Kṛṣṇa consciousness and devotional service, he acts in it bhakti-yoga or. buddhi-yoga, the all-encompassing yoga. This all-encompassing yoga is the most perfected stage of life.
A person may have accepted a true spiritual master and be drawn to a spiritual organization, but if he is not intelligent enough to make progress, Ka teaches him from within so that in the end he can get to Him without difficulty . The qualification for receiving Kṛṣṇa's help consists in always engaging in Kṛṣṇa consciousness and rendering all possible services with love and devotion. One should do some kind of work for Kṛṣṇa and do that work with love. If a devotee is intelligent enough, he will progress very quickly on the path of self-realization. When a person is sincere and devoted to devotional service activities, the Lord gives them the opportunity to progress and ultimately reach Him.
नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थो ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥११॥
aham ajñāna-jaṁ tamaḥ
teṣām - with you; eva - certainly; anukampā-artham - to show special mercy; aham - I; ajñāna-jam - due to ignorance; tamaḥ - Darkness; nāśayāmi - destroy; ātma - Inside; bhāvasthaḥ - herself; jñāna - of knowledge; dīpena - with the lamp; bhāsvatā - glowing.
Out of pity I, who dwell in their hearts, destroy with the shining torch of knowledge the darkness that was born out of ignorance.
When Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya proclaimed the chanting of Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare / Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare in Benares, thousands of people followed Him. Prakāśānanda, a very influential and great scholar at the time, mocked Śrī Caitanya and called Him a fanatic. Sometimes philosophers criticize the devotees for thinking that most of them are in the darkness of ignorance and are philosophically naive enthusiasts, but this assumption is wrong. There are very great scholars who advocate the philosophy of devotion, but even if a devotee does not use their scriptures or seek the help of his spiritual master, Këa helps him in his heart if he is serious in his devotional service is. Therefore, the serious devotee who is engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness cannot be without knowledge. The only qualification is to do devotional service in full Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
The modern philosophers say that without differentiating one cannot dispose of pure knowledge. For them the following answer of the Supreme Lord is intended: Those engaged in pure devotional service will be helped by the Supreme Lord even if they are not well educated and have insufficient knowledge of the Vedic principles. This statement is confirmed in this verse.
The Lord tells Arjuna that it is fundamentally impossible to understand the Supreme Truth, the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, merely by speculating; for the Supreme Truth is so great that it is not possible to understand it or to reach it by straining one's mind. Man can continue to speculate for millions of years, but if he is not surrendered and does not love the Absolute Truth, he will never understand Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Truth. It is through devotional service alone that the Supreme Truth, Kṛṣṇa, is delighted, and through His unimaginable energy He can reveal Himself to the heart of the pure devotee. The pure devotee always carries Kṛṣṇa in his heart; therefore he is like the sun that dissolves the darkness of ignorance. This is the special compassion that is bestowed on a pure devotee of Këa.
Because one has been polluted by the connection with matter for many millions of births, the heart is completely covered with the dust of materialism; however, if one engages in devotional service and keeps chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, the dust disappears very quickly and one is lifted to the level of pure knowledge. The ultimate goal, Viṣṇu, can only be achieved through chanting and devotional service - not through mental speculation or reasoning. The pure devotee need not worry about the necessities of life; he need not worry, for when he removes the darkness from his heart, he will be provided with everything necessary by the Lord himself, since the Lord is delighted by the loving devotional service of the devotee. That is the essence of the teachings of the Gītā. If you have the Bhagavad-gītā If one studies, one can become a fully devoted soul to the Supreme Lord and engage in pure devotional service. Because the Lord takes responsibility for such a devotee, one becomes completely free from all materialistic endeavors.
परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान्।
पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम् ॥१२॥
आहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा।
असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे ॥१३॥
paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma
pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān
puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyam
ādi-devam ajaṁ vibhum
āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve
devarṣir nāradas tathā
asito devalo vyāsaḥ
svayaṁ caiva bravīṣi me
arjunaḥ uvāca - Arjuna said; param - highest; brahma - truth; param - highest; dhāma - conservation; pavitram - purest; paramam - highest; bhavān - You yourself; puruṣam - personality; śāśvatam - originally; divyam - transcendental; ādi-devam - original gentleman; ajam - unborn; vibhum - largest; āhuḥ - say; tvām - to you; ṛṣayaḥ - Point; sarve - all; devarṣiḥ - wise among demigods; nāradaḥ - Narada; tathā - also; asitaḥ - Asita; devalaḥ - devala; vyāsaḥ - Vyāsa; svayam - personally; approx - also; eva - certainly; bravīṣi - to explain; me - Me.
Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahman, the Final, the Supreme Realm and the All-Purifying, the Absolute Truth and the Eternal Divine Person. You are the Primordial God, transcendental and original, and you are the unborn, all-pervading beauty. All the great sages like Nārada, Asita, Devala and Vyāsa say this about you, and now you proclaim it to myself.
In these two verses the Lord gives the modern philosophers an opportunity, for it is here that it becomes clear that the Supreme is different from the individual soul. After Arjuna wrote the four essential verses of the Bhagavad-gītā Having heard in this chapter, he became free from all doubts and accepted Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Immediately he boldly declares: “You are Parambrahma, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” Krsna said elsewhere that He is the author of everything and everyone. Every demigod and every human being is dependent on Him, but they think out of ignorance Humans and demigods, they are absolute and independent from the Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. As already explained by the Lord in the previous verse, devotional service completely removes this ignorance.
In accordance with the Vedic scriptures, Arjuna now accepts the Lord by His grace as the Supreme Truth. It is a mistake to think that Arjuna wanted to flatter Lord Kṛṣṇa and only call Him the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, because the Lord is his close friend. Everything Arjuna says in these two verses is corroborated by the Vedic scriptures. The Vedic teachings affirm that only those who are engaged in His devotional service can understand the Supreme Lord - others cannot. Every single word spoken by Arjuna in this verse is corroborated by the Vedic teachings.
In the Kena Upaniṣad it is said that the Supreme Brahman is the resting place of all being. Kṛṣṇa has already stated that everything rests in Him. The Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad affirms that the Supreme Lord, in whom everything rests, can only be realized by those who keep thinking of Him. This continual remembering of Kṛṣṇa becomes smaraṇam called - it is one of the methods of devotional service. Only through devotional service to Kṛṣṇa can one understand one's position and become free from the material body.
In the Vedas it is also affirmed that the Supreme Lord is the purest of the pure. Whoever understands that Kṛṣṇa is the purest of the pure can become free from all sinful activities. However, unless one surrenders oneself to the Supreme Lord, one cannot be purified from sinful activities. In accepting Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Pure One, Arjuna follows the teachings of the Vedic scriptures. This is also confirmed by all great personalities, of which Narada is the most important.
Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead and one should constantly meditate on Him and enjoy his transcendental relationship with Him. He is the supreme existence. He is free from all physical needs and from birth and death. This is confirmed not only by Arjuna, but also by all Vedic scriptures, den Purāṇas and historiography. Kṛṣṇa is described in this way in all Vedic scriptures, and He Himself says in the fourth chapter: “Although I am unborn, I appear on earth to re-establish the religious principles.” He is the highest source. He has no cause, for He is the cause of all causes and everything proceeds from Him, and one can only come to this perfect knowledge through the mercy of Kṛṣṇa.
Arjuna here makes this declaration by the grace of Ka. If we the Bhagavad-gītā want to understand, we should accept what these two verses say. This will be that paramparāSystem called - the acceptance of the succession of the spiritual masters. As long as one is not in this succession, one can Bhagavad-gītā do not understand. It's not possible that Gītā to be understood through so-called academic education. Unfortunately, despite so much evidence in the Vedic scriptures, those who take pride in their education still hold on to their stubborn belief that Ka is an ordinary person.
सर्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव।
न हि ते भगवन्व्यक्तिं विदुर्देवा न दानवाः ॥१४॥
sarvam etad ṛtaṁ manye
yan māṁ vadasi keśava
na hi te bhagavan vyaktiṁ
vidur devā na dānavāḥ
sarvam - all; budget - these; ṛtam - truths; manye - accept; yat - What; mām - to me; vadasi - You say; keśava - O Kṛṣṇa; n / A - No way; Hi - certainly; te - Yours; bhagavan - O personal God; vyaktim - Epiphany; viduḥ - can know; devāḥ - the demigods; n / A - neither; dānavāḥ - the demons.
O Keśava [Kṛṣṇa], everything you have told me I accept as truth. Neither the gods nor the demons, O Lord, know your personality.
Here Arjuna affirms that unbelieving and demonic people cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Not even the demigods know Him, let alone the so-called scholars of the modern world. By the grace of the Supreme Lord, Arjuna has come to know that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Truth and that He is perfect. One should therefore follow the example of Arjuna, for Kṛṣṇa made him the authority of Bhagavad-gītā. As described in Chapter Four, that was it paramparāSystem (the succession of the spiritual masters) leading to the understanding of the Bhagavad-gītā necessary has been lost, and therefore Kṛṣṇa reestablished that succession with Arjuna; for Arjuna was His friend and devotee. Therefore, as stated in our introduction to this book, the Bhagavad-gītā by the paramparāSystem can be understood. Than paramparāSystem was interrupted, Arjuna was chosen to renew it. One should therefore follow the example of Arjuna, who accepted everything Kṛṣṇa said, for in this way we can learn the essence of the Bhagavad-gītā understand, and only then can we realize that Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम।
भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥१५॥
vettha tvaṁ puruṣottama
svayam - personality; eva - certainly; ātmanā - by yourself; ātmānam - You yourself; vettha - you know; tvam - you; puruṣottama - O most exalted of all persons; bhūta-bhāvana - O origin of all being; bhūteśa - O Lord of everything; deva-deva - O Lord of all demigods; jagat-godfather - O Lord of the whole universe.
Truly, you alone know yourself through your energies, o origin of all being, lord of all beings, god of gods, o supreme person, lord of the universe.
Supreme Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa can only be understood by people who, like Arjuna and his followers, are connected to Him through devotional service. People with an atheistic or demonic mentality cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Intellectual speculation that takes us away from Kṛṣṇa is a grave sin, and those who do not know Kṛṣṇa should not try that Bhagavad-gītā to comment. The Bhagavad-gītā is the word Kṛṣṇa, and because it is the science of Kṛṣṇa, it should be understood as Arjuna understood it to be from Kṛṣṇa. They shouldn't be heard from atheists.
The Supreme Truth is recognized in three aspects: as the impersonal Brahman, the localized Paramātmā, and finally as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.At the last stage of the realization of the Absolute Truth one arrives at the Supreme Personality of Godhead. A liberated soul, and even an ordinary person, may know the impersonal Brahman or the localized Paramātmā; however, it may be that they reveal the personality of God from the verses of the Bhagavad-gītā
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